Currently, to protect people from attacks of blood-sucking insects, effective repellent substances that meet modern requirements, as well as special types of clothing and nets, are used. Measures to protect against vulture are divided into individual and group.
Individual and group protection against bloodsucking insects, mosquitoes, midges, midges, and horseflies, methods of applying repellents to protect against bloodsucking insects.
In order of preference, methods and means of individual protection of a person from blood-sucking insects can be arranged as follows:
Mechanical means and methods of protection against bloodsucking insects.
Clothing, fabrics, protective nets and other products impregnated with deterrents.
Direct application of repellents to the skin.
The best way to mechanically protect against bloodsucking insects is to wear a special protective suit. A set of protective clothing usually includes:
Patchwork shirt made of thickened linen. Jumper thickness 3.6-3.7 mm, mesh size 7&# 215; 7 mm.
Top shirt made of fine-mesh fabric. Cell Size 0.5&# 215; 0.5 mm, thickness 0.5 mm.
The purpose of the wearable shirt is to create a space between the human body and outer clothing, equal to the length of the proboscis of mosquitoes (the most massive bloodsuckers). The upper shirt prevents the penetration of small blood-sucking insects (midges). Both shirts reliably protect against bites of the gnat and at the same time, due to the mesh, they provide sufficient ventilation for the body, it is not hot to work in them.
Cape to protect the head, neck and face from blood-sucking insects.
The head, neck and face are protected by a repellent-impregnated cloak that descends on the shoulders and leaves the face open. It is made of cotton tulle or a thin knitted fabric. The length of the cape is up to 30 cm, the width is 80-100 cm. It is fixed on the headdress with the help of a linen elastic threaded along the upper edge of the cape..
The front and sides of the cape consists of a double layer of fabric (strip width 10 cm). Impregnation of the cape requires 10-15 grepellent. Protective properties when used, for example, DETA, last 3-4 weeks. When stored in a plastic bag, the validity of the processed wrap increases. The use of tulle wraps is more effective than cotton nets.
According to the model of tulle, you can make capes from cheap fabrics (not mesh) – calico, chintz, and muslin. 0.4-0.5 square meters are spent on a cape. m of fabric. The weight of a cape from calico or gauze is 35–40 g, from calico 45–50 g. It is recommended to impregnate them with solutions of DETA in acetone, at the rate of 15 g of repellent per cape. Wraps from the named fabrics are well washed. They are convenient to use and accessible to the public. The mosquitoes, which reliably protect against bloodsucker attacks, have not lost their significance..
Canopy applications for protection against bloodsucking insects.
In the room, tents from mechanical protective equipment canopy can be used. It is easy to make it yourself. Above the bed, cot, sofa, sleeping bag at a height of 1 meter, twine (cord, bandage, etc.) is stretched and fixed on both sides, on which a piece of gauze is hung so that this simple structure turns out to be in the form of a roof with steep slopes.
The edges of the gauze are tucked under the mattress. Pieces of gauze are sewn into the end parts. With a sufficient amount of gauze, you can do without suturing the end sides of the canopy (14 meters of gauze is required per canopy). And with a limited amount of this fabric, it is possible to use two hand-sewn sheets, from which the canopy is made according to the method described above. At the same time, it is necessary to sew pieces of gauze of the appropriate size into the butt ends.
Ways to apply repellents to protect against bloodsucking insects on clothing.
One of the main ways of using repellents is to impregnate with them clothing, fabrics, protective nets and other means. Gauze and muslin kerchiefs, stockings, socks, cotton overalls, gauze hoods are impregnated with solutions, emulsions and clean repellents. The consumption of a pure preparation averages 40 ml per 1 sq. Km. m clothing or 30-35 ml per 100 g of tissue.
Outerwear (shirt, pants, sweatshirt, skirt, etc.) are treated by rubbing the drug with cotton swabs. 300-400 ml of the drug is applied to a men’s suit. Clothes can also be handled with a household spray gun. It should be borne in mind that some drugs dissolve plastic.
To apply repellents to clothes, use aerosol cans. When spraying the liquid, the cylinders should be kept at a distance of 15-25 cm from the treated surface, irrigating it for 15-20 seconds.
A simpler way of applying repellent to clothes is also possible. The palms are moistened with a small amount of the drug, and then applied to the surface of the clothing and carefully rubbed into the fabric. At the same time spend from 20 to 40 ml of the substance. This method of processing clothes is more economical. It does not require the use of cotton swabs and spray devices, reduces the need for the drug.
The repellent-soaked suit provides reliable protection against the attack of blood-sucking insects for two months. The processed clothes in the intervals between the toe are stored folded in a tight package (plastic or oilcloth bags, parchment paper, etc.). This lengthens the duration of the deterrent.
Protective nets against bloodsucking insects.
Protective nets for soaking are immersed in 300-400 ml of repellent for 2-3 hours. Then it is removed, squeezed and dried in the open air for 1-2 hours. Such nets protect the face for 10-15 days. In order to fix the repellent on the grid, cellulose acetate jellies are used (1 part by weight cellulose acetate, 10 parts acetone, 4 parts by weight repellent).
Treated in this way nets retain their deterrent properties for more than a month, and when stored in closed containers (glass jars, oilcloth and plastic bags) – about three months. The mesh can be made by yourself from a piece of fishing net (ravine delhi with mesh of any size) of size 50&# 215; 75 or 60&# 215; 80 cm. Sheath the edges of the mesh with narrow cotton tape – edging. On one of the long sides of the mesh, ribbons 30-35 cm long are sewn at the ends.
Sew nets and in the form of hoods or cut in the form of strips with beveled corners. They are convenient to use for logging. A net impregnated with some kind of liquid repellent is thrown onto the headgear so that the front edge hangs down to the superciliary arches, the side edges lie on the shoulders, and the rear edge covers the neck.
The ends of the braid are tied under the chin. The face remains open. At the back, the net can be attached to clothes with safety pins. It is not recommended to refill the mesh under a hat or collar to avoid skin irritation. Frightening nets are prepared in advance, and impregnated with repellents before use. Each net can be used for several summer seasons..
Ways to apply repellents to protect against bloodsucking insects on the face, neck, arms and body.
Of the repellents, only a few are suitable for cutaneous use. These include: DMF, DETA, Repellin-ALPHA. For a single treatment of the face, neck, hands to the elbow, 2-3 g of the drug is needed. When applying a repellent to the body to the waist, the consumption increases to 6-8 g. In total, 300-350 g are required per person during the season. In hot summers and during heavy physical exertion, when a person sweats heavily, the seasonal rate of the repellent substance increases by 1, 5-2.0 times.
When applying repellents on the skin in the form of pastes, creams, lotions, you can not use acetone, glycerin, vegetable oils as solvents, since they are well absorbed by the skin. Aerosol containers containing repellent can be used to spray open areas of the body (except the face). The disadvantage of aerosols is that they contain little active substance, only 15-25%.
Group protection against bloodsucking insects.
Group protection is used against bloodsucking insects flying into living quarters and tents. To protect residential premises from the penetration of blood-sucking insects, doors, windows, and windows are tightened with a nylon or fine-mesh metal mesh. Coarse mesh, tulle and other curtains saturated with repellents, for example, dimethyl phthalate, can also be used..
In the absence of repellents, it is recommended to impregnate the curtains with a strongly odorous substance – lysol, naphthalisol, creolin and others. Pairs repel them flying insects.
The outer surfaces of the tents should be sprayed with a deterrent to a height of 0.5 meters from the ground. The tent processed in this way is protected from infestation of the vulture for 5-6 days, provided that there is no rain or strong dew. Repeat as necessary..
There is another way to protect the tent from blood-sucking insects. 50-60 cm wide strips of mesh treated with repellents are suspended from the outside walls and the tent exit. The grid is attached so that it hangs to the ground. The tent entrance is hung with the same repellent-soaked net. It is hung only in the evening and at night. During rain, the nets are removed.
The following insecticides are used to combat adult bloodsuckers on day-care under natural conditions:
Dichlorvos (DDVF, emulsion) – 0.3 kg / ha.
Dibrom – 0.3 kg / ha.
Karbofos – 1.0-1.5 kg / ha.
In the area of health facilities (rest houses, pioneer camps, summer cottages, etc.), it is advisable to carry out small hydrotechnical measures within a radius of about 200-300 meters from residential premises to collectively protect people from blood-sucking insects. Fill mosquitoes with land. These are small swamps, puddles, ditches and other lowlands flooded with water.
This method is cumbersome and expensive. In urgent cases, you can treat the area with an insecticide (dust DDT) at the rate of 10-15 kg per 1 hectare. It is more advisable to do this before the snow melts. Early in the spring, meltwater will fill various depressions, and mosquito offspring will die.
Based on the materials of the book “Protection from the vile”.
Sharkov A. A.