Infectious and parasitic diseases, catarrhal infectious diseases, prevention and treatment in extreme situations and in the field.

Infectious diseases in extreme situations and just in the field represent the largest group of diseases due to the fact that microorganisms are ubiquitous. Some microorganisms are everywhere, such as streptococcus, staphylococcus and others, some have permanent habitats. These are the causative agents of plague, leptospirosis, anthrax, hepatitis, encephalitis and others. 

Infectious and parasitic diseases, colds infectious diseases, prevention and treatment in extreme situations and in the field.

The treatment of most of these diseases should be carried out by specialists, therefore, in extreme situations, they pose a significant danger due to the inability to provide qualified and most importantly effective assistance to oneself..

Means include: analgin, aspirin, paracetamol, anti-inflammatory etazole, sulfadimezin, biseptol. With any disease of the respiratory system, warming, plentiful warm drink is necessary. In the absence of drugs, wild herbal remedies can be used..

Plantain.

Grind 4-5 fresh leaves into a mug of boiling water and leave for 30 minutes. Then gargle with a warm solution every hour until the condition improves..

Buds or pine needles.

Good anti-inflammatory and expectorant. One handful of needles or buds are ground in a small amount of cold water, then filled with water at the rate of 1:10 and boiled for half an hour. After that, let it brew for another 4 hours and filter. Gargle with infusion or drink 1/3 cup three times a day.

Rose petals.

A decoction of them is a good remedy for gargling with tonsillitis and acute respiratory infections. One handful of petals per mug of water is brought to a boil, then infused for an hour and filtered. Gargle 3-4 times a day.

Birch branches with buds.

Grind and brew with boiling water. Insist for an hour. Drink 3-4 mugs per day.

White willow (vetla, rocket).

Pour a handful of crushed bark with a mug of hot water (0.5 L), bring to a boil and boil for 10-15 minutes over low heat. Then you can gargle.

Infectious and parasitic diseases associated with zoonotic natural foci.

Epidemic hepatitis.

It occurs in various climatic and natural zones. Its causative agents do not die not only in the hot climate of the steppes and deserts, humid tropical forests, but even in cold water, snow and ice of the Arctic. In extreme conditions of the autonomous regime, treatment is almost impossible. In order to prevent water from any, even flowing, body of water, it is necessary to bring to a boil before use, wash your hands before eating, observe the cleanliness of the camp.

Tick-borne encephalitis.

A fairly common disease. Its varieties on different continents are sometimes very different from each other, but from this disease does not become less severe. Widely known Japanese, Australian, Vilyuysky, Kola encephalitis. However, the most common is taiga spring-summer encephalitis (in foreign literature it is called Russian). Infection with taiga encephalitis is possible not only through ticks of the ixodidae family, but also through bites of horseflies and mosquitoes. The disease has a characteristic pronounced seasonality from May to June..

At the end of the first, sometimes second week after a tick bite, body temperature rises to 39 degrees, accompanied by severe chills, a sharp headache, severe drowsiness and lethargy. Then paralysis can develop and in 30% of cases death occurs. Ticks appear in thawed spots in early spring at an average daily temperature of +4 +5 degrees and are most active in late May and mid-June, but their bites can be dangerous in July and August. Especially the mite loves animal paths in shaded forest areas, bushes and deciduous forests. But it is also found in open places, overgrown with tall grassy vegetation..

Hungry ticks are located on the tips of the side branches of plants and herbs, cling to the clothes of a passing person or the hair of an animal. Ticks are active at any time of the day and in any weather, except for heavy rains. In humans, ticks are most often sucked under the armpits, to the chest, back, at the level of the belt, to the neck, behind the ears, along the edge of the hairline, as well as in the inguinal region. The tick is sucked in for 5-7 hours. His bite is painless. Blood tick sucks from 2 to 7 days.

With a bite, it is very important to detect and remove the sucking tick in time. For this purpose, it is necessary to regularly inspect the body, especially when crossing through bushes and after a night break. You can not tear off the tick with your hands, it is best to burn it with a small coal. The proboscis remaining in the wound is removed with a sharp object calcined over a fire, and the wound is treated as if it were wounded. Accidentally crushing the tick, you can not rub your eyes and touch the nasal mucosa before your hands are thoroughly washed.

Equestrian leukomaniosis.

Belongs to the number of parasitic infectious diseases. It occurs in areas of deserts, semi-deserts and steppes and spreads through mosquito bites. But the main carriers of the infection are small rodents and various reptiles.

Malaria.

One of the most common diseases of the tropical zone. The carrier of malaria is all bloodsucking (mosquitoes, mosquitoes, flies, flies). In South America, Peru and Bolivia, on the eastern slopes of the Andes, in tropical rainforests at an altitude of 1000 to 3000 meters, an amazing tree grows. This is an evergreen tree with a height of 10 to 25 meters, less often a shrub with a beautiful silver bark, is locally called kina-kina, which means the bark of all barks. And in Europe, it is better known as a quinine tree, whose bark helps to cure malaria. The bark is ground into powder and taken orally in small doses, washed down with water.

Filariasis.

Transmitted through mosquito and midge bites. Distributed in the tropical zone. One of the most severe forms of this disease, vuchereriosis (elephantiasis or elephantiasis) is manifested in severe damage to the lymphatic vessels and glands..

Yellow fever.

Distributed in Africa, South and Central America. The carriers of the disease are mosquitoes. The disease is very difficult. The incubation period is from 3 to 6 days, then a strong chill appears. The temperature rises sharply, nausea, vomiting, headache. On the body, the same manifestations as with jaundice. Nasal and intestinal bleeding begins. In almost 10% of all cases, the disease is fatal. The most reliable way to prevent yellow fever is to vaccinate with a live vaccine.

Trypanosomiasis.

Otherwise called sleeping sickness. The carrier of this natural focal disease is the tsetse fly. The disease is widespread in Equatorial Africa between 15 s. w. and 28 y. w. Mortality from sleeping sickness is very high. It is possible to prevent the disease by special vaccination with pentamine isothionate.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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