Injuries in the form of bruises are formed from external forces, a blow from a stick, a stone, and the like. Or from falling onto a solid object. When bruised, soft tissues rupture and form a subcutaneous bruise, bruise.
Injuries associated with fractures, dislocations, sprains, bruises, first mutual and self-help in the field.
Signs of injury include pain, swelling, and a bluish tint in the skin of the damaged area. After some time, the bruise becomes brown, greenish and yellow..
the effect is even greater. During the day, several cold compresses must be changed. Then the bruising site is shown warmth, and after a few days massage.
Sprained and torn ligament injuries.
Such injuries form when the muscle tension is too strong, and also if a person stumbles and tucks his leg. In this case, the ligaments can be broken partially or completely. The symptoms are the same as with a bruise, but limited joint function is also added..
First aid is complete rest, a cold compress and a pressure bandage. It’s warm in a day. Massage can be done no earlier than after 8-10 days. Complete rupture of the ligaments is a rather serious injury, which cannot be treated independently. In this case, after applying a pressure bandage, it is necessary to move only with the help of improvised crutches.
Such injuries arise from the influence of the external environment on the joint area (shock, fall), while the bones completely or partially cease to be in contact with each other. The joint bag usually ruptures, and the auxiliary ligaments are stretched. At the slightest movement pain occurs, the joint does not move and swells, its configuration changes. First aid is to give the joint a position in which pain is reduced, and fix this place with a bandage. A dislocated arm is fixed with a scarf or something replacing it in the same way as with a fracture. It is useful to put a cold compress on a dislocated joint.
Fractures of the extremities can occur anywhere in the arm or leg, but more often they occur in the so-called typical places. The neck of the shoulder and thigh, the radius in the lower third, the external and internal ankles and other.
Types of Fractures.
Open with skin damage.
In addition, fractures are divided into longitudinal, transverse, oblique and spiral, and depending on the number of fragments into simple (two fragments) and comminuted (with several fragments). Naturally, an open and especially complicated fracture is the most dangerous. Especially in an extreme situation, when there is no place to wait for help. Microbes can get into the wound of such fractures and cause blood poisoning, which cannot be fought alone.
A typical sign of a limb bone fracture is pain at the fracture site, swelling, bruising, abnormal limb shape, impaired limb movement and a crunch of bone fragments when probing. With a complete bone fracture, under the influence of muscle contraction, the fragments move and the limb is usually shortened. Healing occurs by the formation of so-called corns on the connective tissue connecting the bone fragments..
First aid for fractures of the extremities in the field.
First aid for fractures is, if possible, in fixing and connecting displaced bones. With closed fractures, a hematoma can form in this place, with open fractures, with skin damage, bone fragments, soft tissues can protrude from the wound, foreign objects (pieces of clothing, etc.) can be in the wound. Only free-lying foreign objects should be removed from the wound. A sterile, if possible, dressing is necessarily applied to the wounds. For this purpose, it is necessary to firmly fix the damaged surface, previously freeing it from clothing..
This should be done carefully, without sudden movements that could cause pain shock and even loss of consciousness. However, practice shows that in extreme situations, people with a strong will and a desire to survive in the first minutes of the tragedy usually have almost no pain. This, on the one hand, is very bad, since it is impossible to determine the place and degree of damage, and on the other hand it makes it possible to provide first aid before it occurs, without losing consciousness.
The only difficulty in the need for self-help is the need to move around in order to find material for the manufacture of tires. In some cases, it may turn out that there is nothing suitable for the bus nearby. Then you will have to crawl to the nearest tree, bush or even flat long stones, but in this case you must first at least tighten the broken part of the limb with a tight bandage so that the bones do not move even more.
But such movements should be strictly limited by absolute necessity: making a fire, providing water and plant food. In any case, the initial fixation of fractures by strips of material from your clothes gives you the opportunity and time to search for other objects or natural materials for a more reliable fixation. If this does not guarantee complete and proper healing, then it will at least give you the opportunity to move around and provide yourself with food, a fire and shelter from the weather.
Application of a tire or retaining dressing at the fracture site in the field.
After the limb is freed from clothing and the broken limb is given a normal position, a tire of any material at hand is applied. It can be thick branches of any tree or shrub, including those lying on the ground, and any objects of that length that would ensure fixation of the limb above and below the fracture at the same time 15-20 cm in each direction.
All of the above applies primarily to fractures of the lower extremities, which is much more common. If the arms or arm are broken, then the tire is superimposed on the inside and outside, and the arm is fixed with a scarf, a strip of cloth or something else (a vine, willow twig, a strip of birch bark cut across the fibers). The danger of a collarbone fracture is that the subclavian artery and vein pass in the area of the clavicle. Also in this area is the tip of the lung. If one of these organs is damaged, either severe bleeding is possible, which cannot be stopped, or the occurrence of pneumothorax.
Symptoms of a collarbone fracture are pain in this place and deformity, as well as the so-called symptom of a key, when one of the fragments protrudes above the other. First aid comes down to creating immobility in the area of the clavicle, for which special dressings are used. In case of a fracture of the lower jaw, two scarves (or the natural materials listed above) are applied for fixation. One passes under the jaw and is tied on the head, the second covers the chin in front and is tied behind the neck.
Pelvic injuries, first aid in the field.
Pelvic injuries include fractures of his bones. This severe trauma is accompanied by severe pain and shock. In case of suspected fracture of the pelvis, the victim should be laid on his back on a hard surface, bend the legs in the knee and hip joints and place rollers from improvised materials under them (the so-called frog pose).
If possible, any pain medication should be administered in any way. But if there is even the slightest suspicion of damage to the abdomen, narcotic drugs are categorically contraindicated. When a tailbone or sacrum is fractured, the sufferer experiences severe painful pains that cannot be relieved even by drugs.
Injuries to the spine, first aid in the field.
Fractures of the spine, regardless of their location, are characterized by pain at the fracture site. Deformation in this area is possible. With this pathology, the most terrible complication is damage to the spinal cord. Moreover, the higher the fracture site, the more likely this damage is, because the higher the fracture occurred, the greater part of the spinal cord is disconnected from the brain.
So, with a diver’s fracture, the majority of victims suffer a displacement of bone fragments, which leads either to compression of the spinal cord or to rupture of it at the fracture level. First aid ensuring complete rest, fixing the entire body of the victim on a hard surface (board, hard stretcher, etc.). Further business of specialists.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.