Being in a passive position, the victim is motionless, cannot independently change the accepted posture, the head and limbs hang. This situation of the victim occurs in an unconscious state.
Inspection of injured, injured or injured person. Signs of life, agony, clinical and biological death.
The victim takes the forced position to alleviate a serious condition, relieve pain; for example, with damage to the lungs, pleura, he is forced to lie on the affected side. The victim takes a supine position mainly with severe abdominal pain. In case of kidney damage, some victims keep the leg (from the side of the lesion) bent at the hip and knee joints, as this will ease the pain. The main indicators of the body’s vital functions are preserved breathing and cardiac activity.
Signs of life of an injured or injured person.
Saved breath. It is determined by the movement of the chest and abdomen, by fogging of the mirror applied to the nose and mouth, by the movement of a lump of cotton wool or bandage brought to the nostrils.
Preserved Heart Activity. It is determined by palpating the pulse – jerky, periodic oscillations of the walls of peripheral vessels.
You can determine the pulse on the radial artery located under the skin between the styloid process of the radius and the tendon of the internal radial muscle. In cases where it is impossible to examine the pulse on the radial artery, it is determined either on the carotid or temporal artery, or on the legs on the dorsal artery of the foot and posterior tibial artery.
Typically, a healthy person’s heart rate is 60-75 bpm, the heart rate is correct, uniform, and filling is good. It is judged by squeezing the arteries with fingers with varying strength. The pulse increases with cardiac insufficiency as a result of injuries, with blood loss, during pain. Significant decrease in heart rate occurs in severe conditions (traumatic brain injury).
The reaction of the pupils to the light. It is determined by directing a beam of light from any source into the eye, the narrowing of the pupil indicates a positive reaction. In daylight, this reaction is verified as follows. They close their eyes with their hands for 2-3 minutes, then quickly remove their hand, if the pupils narrow, this indicates the preservation of brain functions.
The absence of all of the above is a signal for immediate resuscitation (artificial respiration, indirect heart massage) until signs of life are restored. The recovery of the victim becomes impractical 20-25 minutes after the start of resuscitation, if signs of life are still missing. The onset of biological death – the irreversible cessation of the body’s activity is preceded by agony and clinical death.
Agony of injured, injured or injured person.
It is characterized by a darkened consciousness, lack of pulse, respiratory distress, which becomes irregular, superficial, convulsive, lowering blood pressure. The skin becomes cold, with a pale or bluish tint. Clinical death occurs after agony.
Clinical and biological death of an injured, injured or injured person.
Clinical death is a condition of a person in which there are no basic signs of life – heartbeat and breathing, but irreversible changes in the body have not yet developed. Clinical death lasts 5-8 minutes. This period must be used to provide resuscitation. After this time, biological death occurs..
Signs of biological death are.
– lack of breathing.
– Lack of heartbeat.
– Lack of sensitivity to pain and thermal stimuli.
– Decrease in body temperature.
– Clouding and drying of the cornea.
– Lack of gag reflex.
– Cadaverous spots of blue-violet or crimson-red color on the skin of the face, chest, abdomen.
– Rigid rigor mortis, manifested 2-4 hours after death.
The final decision on the death of an injured, injured or injured person is made in the manner prescribed by law.