It is known that a person for a sufficiently long time can do without food, while maintaining high physical and mental activity. Adaptive reactions of the human body in this case are expressed in a reduction in energy expenditure, a decrease in metabolic rate.
Internal reserves of the human body, the basics of the formation and acquisition of an emergency diet, home-made food packages.
The alkaline reserve of blood decreases, and in the urine the content of ammonia rises, which the body uses to neutralize acidic metabolic products. Urinary excretion of minerals, and especially chlorides, is reduced. The nitrogen content in the urine drops sharply. Pulse and breathing become less frequent, blood pressure decreases.
should cover the energy expenditures of the body, which, with moderate physical work, are approximately 3000–3500 kcal.
However, in the formation of an emergency diet, these standards are unacceptable due to the limited volume of emergency stackings. It should be borne in mind that for areas with a hot climate, the basis of the diet should be carbohydrates. In diets intended for the Arctic and Antarctic, fats and proteins are preferable (G. Luchinsky, 2005).
The specific conditions for the use of emergency rations present a number of requirements for the products included in their composition. They should be used as food without additional cooking, easily digestible, well preserved in the most adverse climatic conditions, suppress the feeling of hunger, and contribute to the preservation of water in the body. It is clear that with so many requirements fulfilled, the palatability of the product fades into the background.
The most complete analysis of the acquisition of diets for actions in difficult extreme conditions is presented by M. N. Logatkin (1973). It is these developments that can be considered as the theoretical basis for currently operating compact sub-caloric diets. Including – rations of survival in various climatogeographic zones.
The task of creating such diets is solved by selecting foods that have the highest nutritional value, as well as through their factory processing (pressing, drying, etc.). At the same time, they strive to minimize the content of inedible and non-digestible parts of food (fiber, connective tissue) and water, as well as reduce the volume and weight of the diet.
Dietary Weight Loss.
By removing water and inedible parts from foodstuffs, it is possible to reduce the daily ration of the human body performing moderate work. In the best case, up to 1 kg 105 g of protein, about 100 g of fat, 700 g of carbohydrates, 20-30 g of minerals, some water. Further weight reduction and a decrease in the dimensions of rations is possible only due to a certain restriction of diets for a certain, relatively short period of time or the use of sub-caloric diets.
It is precisely this principle that underlies the formation of portable (and transportable) food reserves in the armies of most countries of the world, as well as “ration survival” for feeding the population in special conditions.
Home-made grocery sets and diets for hiking, mountaineering and mountaineering.
Historically, in our country, interest in functional nutrition to increase the tolerance of adverse climatic and geographical conditions arose in the 60–70s of the last century, in connection with the massive development of hiking, mountaineering and mountaineering. A huge number of enthusiasts are faced with the fact that providing groups with the right quantities of food for long and long routes through deserted areas is becoming unrealistic due to their weight and volume.
In this regard, homemade manufacture of enriched concentrated products such as protein-carbohydrate sausages has become very popular in tourism and mountaineering circles. For their manufacture, crushed oat flakes, wheat flour or crushed steamed buckwheat were used in various combinations. As well as walnuts, raisins or prunes, chocolate (or cocoa powder), honey, boiled condensed milk, melted pork fat.
The resulting high-calorie product is sometimes (depending on the region and route) additionally fortified with dried sea buckthorn or blackcurrant powder, the most advanced tourists – with berries or fruits of magnolia vine, royal jelly milk, pollen, pollen and pollen.
Based on materials from the book Physiological Foundations of Human Life under Extreme Conditions.
V. S. Novikov, S. I. Soroko.