A relatively new direction in the development of modern knives, which appeared only in the second half of the 20th century, were knives for survival. Of course, any knife should ideally serve for the safety of its owner and ensure its survival in extreme conditions.
Knives for survival, the design and types of knives for survival, the placement of NAZ in the handle of survival knives, the main directions of development.
For example, bowie-style knives, common in North America, or large hunting knives and bear daggers, which were common in Russia, had this function. There were more active attempts to create a universal weapon-tool knife..
So, for example, hunting headsets appeared, in which in the sheath of a large knife there was an auxiliary knife, and sometimes more than one. In some models, the auxiliary tool was in the handle. In this case, they tried to combine the best features of folding and awkward knives in one design.
Such knives were launched as hunting knives, but in World War I, Puma produced military knives made according to a similar scheme. Since it was not very convenient to use such knives, attempts were made to find another solution to this problem.
it became easier and it could be used alone or with a folding knife.
Another model was created by the famous designer of automatic weapons M.T. Kalashnikov. In his knife, a large blade is built into the design of a folding knife. If a large blade is not needed, then it could be removed. The most successful combination of multifunctionality and combat properties occurred in the Werewolf series knives.
In them, the blade and the instrumental part are located between two pivotally attached handles. When throwing the handles on the tool or on the warhead of the blade, you can get a weapon or a universal tool. The design is simple and reliable..
Survival knives, the design of which was based on classic models.
As you can see, the design idea worked quite actively to create universal knives for survival. Nevertheless, modern survival knives that have worked well under normal conditions have proved unsuitable for use in specific environmental conditions..
So, for example, KA-BAR knives were very rusty in a humid climate, the type-setting leather handle and leather sheath quickly went out of order. To create reliable knives, new technologies and materials were required. So there were knives for survival, the design of which was based on classic models, but performed as utilitarian as possible.
Such a knife was made of high-alloy stainless steel, had a developed guard, often bearing an instrumental load, a hollow cylindrical grip with a sealed container for placement of NAZ. Typically, the handle is made of light alloy to facilitate. The blade on the butt has a shock tooth or saw.
Such a knife is durable, versatile, can be used as a combat knife and as a knife for hunting. In this design, functionality and reliability are sacrificed for ease of use. Gradually, survival knives became fashionable and became a special class of modern knives with their own design features..
Design features of modern survival knives.
Survival knives are often a whole set. So, in addition to the knife, the kit contains quite sophisticated sheaths and an auxiliary flat knife-scanner. On the sheath can be nippers, saws, slingshots, launching devices for signal missiles, auxiliary elements of NAZ. For example a signal mirror and a whetstone.
The need to use the scabbard as an element of survival, and not just to accommodate the knife itself, led to the fact that the scabbard began to be equipped with quick-release loops that allow you to remove the knife from the belt without removing the belt.
, and its strength is often enough to use it as a fulcrum. There are models in which special pins are screwed into the guard, turning it into a cat, and in the handle there is an earring for attaching a climbing carabiner or rope. Such a knife can be used for insurance and to overcome various obstacles..
Placing NAZ in the handle of survival knives.
Placing the NAZ in the handle can also be designed in different ways. In the simplest version, the handle is oval and usually with subdigital protrusions. Thus, new models of the Aitor survival knife were made. Knives HP-2 and Katran are also made, although they do not belong to survival knives, but they have a handle design with a hollow internal sealed volume.
At the same time, the handle itself is non-metallic, and the power part is a metal pencil case with a sealed plug. There is an option when the handle is a separate part, while it can even be made of plastic. The base of the shank has a longitudinal cut and ends with a thread. A cylindrical container with NAZ is placed in a longitudinal cut-out and a handle is pushed in, which is pressed by a metal topping that is screwed onto the threaded part of the shank.
handles, which is covered on both sides by overlays. As a rule, one pad is fixed tightly, and the second on the screws. To get to NAZ in this case, you can only have a screwdriver or a special item that replaces it.
There are other options for the split handle. Nevertheless, recently there have been trends towards simplifying the design of knives for survival and reducing their size and functionality. The handle in such knives is usually made overhead on the screws, and NAZ is absent or placed in a pocket on the sheath. As the extreme point of this development, the appearance of skeletal-type survival knives can be considered.
Skeletal and simplified survival knives.
In a pure skeletal form, such survival knives are used little. Basically, for easy operation, the knife handle is wrapped with a cord. Such a knife can be used for other specific work performed, for example, under water. This is facilitated by the presence of a seriatory sharpening, which occupies part of the blade, and in addition to its main cutting function, the knife can replace the saw to a limited extent.
Some models of such knives are even made not of steel, but of titanium alloys. The reason for this specific approach is to reduce the weight of the knife and the increased resistance of titanium to aggressive environmental influences. Less less hardness and resistance of the cutting edge.
There are original designs. For example, the company Cold Steel produces two models of the simplified knife BUSHMAN, made of thin 3 mm steel. The knife handle is also rolled out of this metal and can be used to place a NAZ or attach an additional shaft.
just in many ways returns to its original idea. Unfortunately, the fashionable theme promoted by Hollywood and the interest of the public played a cruel joke with survival knives. Many fakes of models of well-known companies made of lower quality materials appeared on the market.
In addition, models began to appear in which the individual elements of various knives were used, without taking into account the possibility of their real performance. Such products from a serious special-purpose knife turned survival knives into consumer goods of not the best quality. In addition, the quality of the knife was negatively affected by the desire of manufacturers to drive into the design as many useful functions as possible.
The result was heavy, uncomfortable knives, not very suitable for any field of activity. Universalization always harms specialization, and here it is important to stop on time without crossing the line beyond which a multifunctional product becomes inoperative.
Use and application of survival knives.
During their development, survival knives began to be used in different ways. So, in addition to military purposes, they are used in extreme situations, included in the set of various NAZ, for example, used in aviation. At the same time, classic designs can be used as a base for creating a knife.
For example, Fallkniven’s F-1 knife, used as a survival knife in the Swedish Air Force, can be used as a small hunting knife. The absence of the NAZ kit in aviation knives in the handle or on the sheath can be explained by the fact that such a knife is usually part of a whole set of equipment placed on a special vest or in a special knapsack.
, but executed at a new technological level, the matter is ordinary and completely justified. This is largely a tribute to traditional approaches..
For example, the American pilot’s knife resembles a smaller version of the KA-BAR knife, with a fine-toothed saw located on its butt. Therefore, the modern knife for survival, the concept is very extensive and not tied to specific design solutions. Common to all these models is the ability to survive with such a knife in the most extreme conditions.
. A knife with a shorter handle can be used as a cleaver or machete, increasing its chopping ability due to the length of the handle.
Knives for survival with a hollow handle are mounted on poles and additionally fastened with a rope. Skeletal type survival knives are simply tied to a pole. A large survival knife, mounted on a strong pole, may well serve as a hunting horn.
City-style survival knives and lifeguard knives.
The stone jungle of large cities is sometimes more dangerous than the tropical jungle. Therefore, there are special models for survival in urban environments. Such a knife organically combines the capabilities of cold steel self-defense weapons and universal tools. Usually folding knives are used for this, but interest in clumsy models is also noted..
Their advantage is readiness for instant use and great structural reliability. For example, the Commandos knife has a small blade with serytornoy sharpening in front. It is carried in the scabbard, and the scabbard is designed for the hidden carrying of the knife and its instant snatching. For this, a clip is fixed on the handle of the knife, and on the sheath itself there is a special loops for fixing it.
When the handle is thrown onto the blade, the instrumental part of the knife is exposed. Despite its small dimensions, the knife can perform many functions: a saw for wood, a metal saw file, a screwdriver, a can opener, a wrench, a ruler, wire cutters and mini-pliers. As you can see, a very impressive set for all occasions. The presence of the clip allows you to carry the knife with the handle down, at a certain angle. This not only increases stealth and the ability to quickly retrieve, but also does not interfere with a car trip.
Another interesting modification of the urban survival knife is professional lifeguard knives. Usually these are small knives with high instrumental saturation of the blade. It can use interchangeable work elements, various types of saws and cutting edges.
As a rule, the blade of such a knife has a rounded front part or ends with a special tool, a flat screwdriver or a special key. The creation of such special knives is a fairly new direction, with a steady development trend..