The layout of the products on the campaign is the quantity and range of products for each day. Participants in sports trips must have noticed that in the first days of the route their appetite decreases markedly, and if the supply manager is not too experienced, a significant portion of the prepared food has to be thrown away. As a result, the group carries in its backpacks a useless load of doomed products for destruction..
Layout of products for a camping trip, floating layout of products on a camping trip.
Some campaign leaders in such cases seek to force participants to eat through power. This is a blunder, fraught for some tourists with a decrease in working capacity and a deterioration in well-being. The fact is that a temporary decrease in appetite is characteristic for drawing the body into a marching mode, getting used to high loads and acclimatization.
for every day of the trip. An experienced supply manager must take into account all the circumstances, so that the layout of the products is composed with a changing, floating calorie content.
Here we must make a small digression. Some tourists, more often representatives of the fair sex, try to eat less, or even starve in general, to give grace to their figures. Some adherents of various eastern schools and teachings are also keen on similar experiments. The author twice had to encounter hungry faints during the campaigns, which almost cost people their lives. In the first case, the helmet saved the fallen man, in the second – a strong shirt collar and a participant nearby. Therefore, any experiments by starvation on the route, if they are not agreed in advance and are not supported by relevant experience, must be resolutely stopped.
It is also necessary to resolutely suppress attempts by the so-called food minorities (vegetarians, raw-eaters, etc.) to create a separate layout of products for themselves or to impose their own way of eating on the others. This inevitably leads to the creation of an unhealthy psychological climate in the group, as well as to a reduction in BJP due to a violation of the optimal ratio of food components in hard work. But back to the main topic, product layout.
Usually in tourist literature, a layout of products based on three main rations: on the approaches – 2800-3000 kcal, on the main part of the route – 3500-4000 kcal and up to 6500 kcal – on especially difficult storm days. In this case, either standard daily rations are recommended that are completely independent of the specific load, or it is proposed to increase the calorific value in proportion to physical activity. This layout of the products and the approach to the tourist’s nutrition do not take into account the peculiarities of the organism’s behavior under high loads, hypoxia in the mountains and cold in winter. Something like this is calculated fuel consumption in transport. The longer the flight, the more fuel. Or – here’s the norm for you and get out as you want.
But let’s look at the processes that occur in the human body during a trip, and make sure that the layout of the products takes this into account. Let’s start with acclimatization and pulling into camping mode. In the first days of a hike, a tourist who finds himself in unusual conditions – highlands or tundra – forces his body to adapt to a new mode of operation. Perestroika does not happen immediately and requires a lot of effort, mobilization of all reserves. Here the regulatory systems of the body begin to act. They, like a good commander, are transferring additional reserves to the main direction due to minor sections.
In the campaign, an increased load falls on the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems. Therefore, the amount of blood supplied to them increases in absolute value, but their share in the overall balance of blood circulation remains almost unchanged. The locomotor apparatus carries the greatest load, respectively, the blood flow to the muscles increases sharply. However, while the cardiovascular system gets used to increased loads, and during a mountain trip – to a lack of oxygen, the body cannot fully compensate for all its costs. Consequently, other organs, and above all the digestive ones, during this period are supplied with blood worse than usual.
That is why in complex trips in the first days the stomach cannot completely digest food, the liver filters the toxic substances contained in it worse, the intestines slowly remove toxins, thereby contributing to the absorption of harmful substances into the blood. Self-poisoning of the body begins. Then the protection mechanisms work. First, the appetite worsens. This organism requires us to reduce the amount of food and, therefore, reduce the accumulation of harmful substances. Sometimes, most often in the highlands, this is not enough, and the concentration of undesirable substances in the blood continues to increase. And then the body urgently cleanses the stomach and intestines from their sources. Indigestion begins.
Poisoning causes malaise, headache, reduces efficiency and ultimately reduces BJP for this participant. That’s why it’s impossible to eat through force at the beginning of the campaign. Especially difficult are such poisonings in the mountains. Reducing the body’s resistance, they exacerbate the severity of mountain sickness. With proper nutrition, many of the participants who went off the route due to an attack of mountain sickness would have escaped with a slight malaise or, at least, could have gone down to the nearest village without outside help.
But the negative consequences of malnutrition do not end there: the body is forced to spend its resources on combating poisoning, the very resources that it needs so much for speedy adaptation to traveling conditions. As a result, the deadlines stipulated for adaptation are disrupted, and tourists go to a difficult terrain weakened, with coordination of movements not restored. What this threatens is no need to explain. The conclusion suggests itself: in the first days of the campaign, you need to eat significantly less than what is required to replenish energy costs.
However, a person cannot spend more energy than his body produces. Therefore, the body has to mobilize internal resources – use body fat. Own fat does not need to be digested, it does not contain harmful substances. Therefore, it is more profitable to compensate for the calorie deficit by processing it. Practice shows that the calorie content of the diet and the layout of the products in the first 2-3 days of a difficult trip and the first 2-3 days of stay at heights of more than 3,500 meters in the Pamirs and 2,500 meters in the Caucasus should not exceed 2,400-2,600 kcal per day, although this is obviously hungry rations.
Further, the diet should be gradually increased and by the fifth to sixth day bring to 3000–3200 kcal. However, during mountain hikes in Central Asia during this time, the group just manages to reach the technical part of the route, and if climb continues and acclimatization is not yet completed, it is better not to increase the calorie intake 2-3 days before the day or until the height decreases. Now about the main part of the route. In accordance with the recommendations of tourist literature, the calorie content of the diet on the main part of the route should be 3,500-4,000 kcal, and on assault days, from 4,500 to 6,500 kcal.
These norms are much less than the actual energy consumption, but, as they said, the mass of even such a trimmed-down diet is quite large. Replenishment of calories from fatty foods is only possible to a certain limit, and in the mountains it is simply dangerous. Indeed, to obtain one kilocalorie in the oxidation of fats requires more oxygen than in the oxidation of carbohydrates. And this plays a decisive role in the mountains. Yes, and the liver at altitude works worse, because of this complete absorption of fat does not occur, and the body gives us a signal about this: at altitude, fatty foods can cause disgust. How to be?
Consider the physiological processes characteristic of the main part of the route. As you know, energy costs at this time can exceed 8000 kcal per day. To absorb the appropriate amount of food is almost impossible. Indeed, the performance of even a well-trained and adapted person has a limit. For this reason, if the energy costs of traveling along a route on a given day are large, there are not enough resources left to digest food. In addition, the digestion of breakfast and lunch falls on the period of the most active physical work.
It is known from everyday practice that after a day of hard physical work the appetite falls. With a decrease in appetite after a hard day, the stomach signals us that it cannot satisfactorily perform its functions. This means that increasing the ration on storm days, we increase the weight of the backpack, but do not improve nutrition. On assault days, it is necessary first of all to increase the content of easily digestible carbohydrates in the diet to maintain working capacity throughout the day. But the next day, when the most difficult area is behind, you can enter high-calorie, relatively difficult to digest fatty foods, such as ghee or loin, into the diet.
If acclimatization is successful, fat increases are permissible even in the highlands. High-calorie foods will help restore strength spent on an assault day. The calorie deficiency can be partially replenished in the daytime, when energy consumption for movement is minimal. But here it is necessary to observe a measure so that the feast does not lead to a breakdown in the schedule due to indigestion. Supported by many years of practice, all of the above allows us to give the following recommendation: the daily caloric intake on the main part of the route should not exceed 3500 kcal.
Increase calorific value in the post-storm days rationally to 4000 kcal. To restore strength, drugs used for the rehabilitation of athletes are very convenient. In hiking and skiing, the load on the main part of the route, as a rule, is distributed more evenly than in the mountains, so you can do without a significant change in the caloric content of diets on different days. When leaving the hiking area, the loads fall, and in mountain hikes the height decreases. The resources of the body by this time are pretty depleted, and a hunger epidemic erupts among tourists.
They can eat at this time, and the body absorb the fabulous amount of food. But the backpacks are already empty, because carrying a lot of products for the last few days is difficult, and sometimes impossible. There are three ways out of this situation. Make the throwing of products to the final section of the route, switch to low-calorie and difficult to digest food to fool the stomach, or simply tighten the belt more tightly. Actively switch to pasture at the end of the route is dangerous. Accustomed to concentrates, the stomach can strongly object to excess fiber in vegetables and fruits..
There is another period – post-trip. Having returned home, tourists begin to eat up for the hike, but those who lead a sedentary lifestyle should stop on time, otherwise obesity, a professional illness of tourists, is inevitable. To participants of especially difficult and long hikes. In 1999, Muscovites (led by A. Lebedev) went hiking in the 6th category of difficulty in the Pamir (470 km, about 40 days, climbing the peaks of the Revolution and Lenin on the 23rd and 37th days).
Their experience shows that from 20-25 days, protein intake should be increased, since long trips decrease working capacity, primarily due to a lack of proteins for muscle and nervous system recovery. Accordingly, the layout of the products should also change. Muscovites 2–2.5 times increased the rate of freeze-dried meat, introduced 20–30 g of soy cubes per person and increased the number of meals up to 5–6 times, which improved its digestibility.
Based on materials from the book Camping Food.