Leptospirosis, infectious disease, description, symptoms, first aid and treatment methods, prevention.

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by various pathogenic types of leptospira. In people, its symptoms manifest in the form of intoxication, wave-like fever, damage to the blood capillaries, liver, kidneys and central nervous system. 

Leptospirosis, infectious disease, description, symptoms, first aid and treatment methods, prevention.

Leptospirosis has been reported in more than 30 species of animals and birds. Among domestic animals, they suffer from pigs, cattle, chickens, geese and ducks. From wild animals, many species of rodents and insectivores are susceptible to leptospirosis, predators (wolf, fox, jackal, raccoon, mink, etc.), ungulates (sika deer) and birds (ducks, water hens and some others).

with stagnant water. Leptospira are excreted from sick animals along with urine. Once in water, they penetrate into a healthy body along with water during drinking or by contact through damaged skin and mucous membranes.

It is possible that predators become infected as a result of eating meat from sick or dead animals. Now the main epidemic danger for the population is represented by household foci of leptospirosis, where rodents and farm animals are the main source of human infection. Natural foci account for only about 5% of human diseases.

However, for hunters, natural foci are a significant epidemic danger, since among animals susceptible to the incidence of leptospirosis there are many species – objects of hunting.

Leptospirosis, the course and stages of the disease in humans, prevention.

The natural foci of this infection are confined to floodplains of rivers with flood meadows, lowlands with grassy hummocky swamps and lacustrine swamps inhabited by water-loving species of rodents (muskrat, water rat, etc.). The main route of transmission of leptospirosis is water.

The causative agent enters the human body through damaged skin, mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes when working in shallow ponds, swampy meadows, while thinking or using raw water from shallow ponds, as well as when eating berries contaminated with excrement from sick animals.

For some professional groups involved in animal husbandry, slaughtering and hunting, contact and food routes for the transmission of leptospira are possible. It should be noted that among these occupational groups there is an increased incidence of.

Leptospirosis in humans begins 4-14 days after infection. In patients, the temperature rises (up to 40 degrees). At 4-6 days, the liver increases and begins to hurt. In severe patients, jaundice begins, in some, a rash on the skin is recorded. Often affected kidneys and membranes of the brain, as well as the spinal cord. Fatal illness outcomes are rare..

Treatment is with antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline drugs). Non-specific prophylaxis measures are simple: use only boiled water from shallow ponds, wash your hands and be careful when taking skins and handling animal carcasses. The meat of mined animals suspected of leptospirosis must be thoroughly cooked..

Vaccinations of people working in areas dangerous for leptospirosis are carried out with a killed polivaccine subcutaneously in 2.0 and 2.5 ml with an interval after 7 days. After a year, a single revaccination is carried out.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..

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