Light alarm means include candles, lighters, kerosene lamps, signal mirrors, bonfires, torches. Even an elementary candle can serve as a signaling tool. Fire from a lighter can be seen at a great distance, if used correctly. Candle light, lighter fire are best distinguished when they burn inside a fabric or snow shelter.
Light signaling devices, mirrors, bonfires, torches, international alarm codes and emergency signaling gestures.
Signal mirrors can be made by yourself from several pocket mirrors, tin, metal foil, chocolate wrappers, etc. Reflective properties can be used not only in the signal mirror. The shine of the wide blade of the knife, the bottom of the can, the hacksaw.
Attract attention with ordinary foil. For this, it is necessary, having previously crushed the sheets of foil, so that a lot of reflecting planes are formed, to spread out on the slopes of the hills or hang on the trees. Shining in the sun, the foil will attract attention.
Bonfire is the easiest and oldest way to signal. The effectiveness of the signal fire is directly proportional to the place of its breeding. A bonfire spread out in an open, well-visible area of the meadow, a forest edge, a high bare hill, etc., is visible from afar. Bonfires laid out on rafts, which, in turn, are anchored in the middle of a river or reservoir, are especially visible..
It is better to prepare several bonfires and arrange them in the shape of a geometric figure (three bonfires form a triangle). The distance between the bonfires should be at least 30 meters. Near each bonfire, it is necessary to lay down an additional supply of firewood, covering them with a piece of plastic film or a thick layer of fir spruce branches so that the firewood is not wet, damp, and remains dry.
An intermittent signal pays more attention to itself than a constant signal. To do this, it is recommended to periodically cover a single bonfire with a piece of cloth, spruce branches or block it with your body. In clear sunny weather, white swirling smoke is clearly visible. To do this, throw green branches, moss, grass into the fire.
In cloudy weather, black smoke is better visible. To do this, oiled rags, rubber, plastic bottles, raw moss, heather, spruce spruce are thrown into the fire. A distress signal can be given if a separate tree is set on fire, but this method is very dangerous, as it can cause a fire.
Torches as emergency alarms.
If you decide to hit the road, then you need to prepare several torches. To do this, it is necessary to tear dry birch bark with old birch, roll it into a scroll and then put it on a long stick. The intensity of the torch glow depends on the amount of birch bark, the thickness and density of the scroll.
The torch can be made from an empty tin can, in which you need to pour sand soaked in gasoline or diesel fuel and attach it to a long stick. In the afternoon, to get thick smoke in a jar, you must additionally splash oil or throw a few pieces of rubber.
It is important that your clothes are bright, better than orange, and white in the steppe. It will also attract attention. Remember that a light or sound signal repeated three times in a row at short intervals indicates that you need help.
One way to alarm is an international code table. Signals of the code table are laid out in open, clearly visible places from the air. Signal dimensions should be: 10 meters in length, 3 meters in width and 3 meters between signals, otherwise the signal will be difficult to disassemble from a great height.
All signals laid out on the ground must have the maximum number of straight lines and angles. The signal should be contrasted on the ground. The warning signal should carry some information about your distress..
Signals can be made from almost everything: from laid out sleeping bags, spare clothes, debris from vehicles, stones, tree branches, sand, etc. The signal can be dug up. Remove the top layer of turf and lay it side by side. In snow, the signal is trampled or drawn with the help of ash. Each character of the code table has its own meaning, and you need to know it.
International Alarm Codes.
To communicate with the pilots of search and rescue aircraft there is a special international signaling with gestures. When giving signals with gestures, do them clearly, without fussing, remember that it is difficult to parse the signal at a long distance.
International Alarm Gestures.
In some situations, it is important to be able to use the internal alarm system. The use of gestural, light and sound signals should be given with the frequency of Morse code signals.
In an emergency, you cannot limit yourself to setting one or two signals. Alarms should be diverse, multi-stage. Only then will it be effective. You can also attract attention with the help of kites, balloons, signal flags, dangers and other marks.
Alarms are not a simple matter; there is always the possibility that no one will notice the signal you have provided, except for yourself. This is typical when victims are not specifically sought after..
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Artyshko S. V.