Long-term shelters and shelters, caves, lightweight structures for long-term shelters, construction of shelters from reeds, a house made of turf.

If you have come to the conclusion that a rescue search is not being conducted and that it is not practical to search for a path to salvation on your own because of the distance, weather and climate conditions, lack of necessary equipment or physical condition, you should make yourself the most comfortable long-term shelters that are possible. 

Long-term shelters and shelters, caves, lightweight structures for long-term shelters, construction of shelters from reeds, a house from turf.

Long-term shelters are a place where you could feel comfortable enough until you can finally attract the attention of rescuers or equip yourself for a long hike with your own capabilities. In a cold climate, warmth and comfort are needed. In hot, you don’t want to miss the slightest breeze. Your long-term shelters should provide protection against adverse seasonal weather changes and daily temperature changes..

, therefore, treat them with caution. A lot of dry plant material or coniferous spruce branches will play the role of thermal insulation. A good fire usually makes the animals leave. Leave them a path to retreat. Sometimes in a cave, especially when it goes deep into the slope of a mountain or hill, there is its own source of fresh water in the form of an underground water stream or water seeping through stones.

If the cave is located the entrance to the wind, make screens on both sides of it, so that they overlap and one is slightly behind the other in order to be able to enter and exit. Arrange a hearth in the back of the cave. Smoke will rise to the ceiling, and normal air will remain below. The smoke from the fire diluted at the entrance, most likely, will not go out through the door, but will be blown in. If you close the entrance, be sure to leave a smoke outlet. Explore the question of the probability of a collapse both inside and outside the cave. You may need shelter very badly, but your situation can become much worse if you are walled up or injured by collapsing stones..

Long-term shelters for lightweight structures.

Follow the recommendations given regarding the construction of an inclined shelter (canopy). You can increase it, make the roof and the front wall less inclined, or you can put the walls and make the roof with large eaves overhangs for additional protection from the sun and so that water from the rain flows down from the roof as far as possible from the shelter. Dig a drain channel to drain water. If you have bamboo or other durable material for a rigid frame, in tropical conditions, raise the floor of your shelter above the ground to make it difficult for creeping animals to access it.

In hot climates, you will need a solid roof for a long-term shelter to protect from rain and sun, and if it protrudes significantly from the walls, they can be made loose, with openings to allow air to pass through. Cracks and cracks can be covered with grass with mud, clay, etc., and the roof can be made of a wide variety of materials, weaving them between the crossbeams or roof extensions. Where it rains constantly, use leaves or bark for roof tiles from above..

Long-term reed shelters.

When there are no trees or bamboo, you can bind reeds or other strong stems of plants in bunches so that they form support columns, such a method is used by the marsh Arabs of Iraq. Tie the reed in long thick bunches. Take the longest stems and arrange them so that the ends are evenly distributed along the entire length of the bunch and do not form weak spots, converging in one place. At one end (base) there should be a flat end, and the second should converge on a cone. Harvest enough of these bundles, and if possible, more thin and long. The latter are useful for securing the sides of your shelter.

Place thick reed tufts along the long sides of the site under long-term shelter. Dig the thick ends into the ground and connect the columns to each other in their lower sections with thin beams. Tilt the tops of the columns to each other, overlap in pairs and tie them together. Add thin bundles, connecting them to the sides of the structure to the very top. Weave the reed into the resulting frame until you get a shelter that satisfies you, or weave separate panels of leaves and reeds and cover them with the frame.

Sod houses as long-term shelters in extreme situations.

Sod houses built can replace log houses when there is no suitable forest or tools to handle it. Cut the turf briquettes 45×15 cm in size and use them as bricks in a brickwork with dressing. Make the upper edge of the side walls inclined to make a roof with a slope, for the device of which you will have to find crossbars made of wood or other durable material. The greater the slope of the ramp, the better it will drain rainwater. The length of the crossbeams will determine the size of the structure. Top the roof with turf or cover it with grass..

If the turf is not very large, make the structure low so that there is enough space to sit on the floor, but not stand at full height. One side may be open and overlook a bonfire. When you cut the sod for construction, try to make it so that a cut out signal for help is received on the ground for those who could see you. With small shelter sizes, you can also use turf to make a structure such as a hive or an igloo. If time and opportunity allow, a big house can be built from turf.

Some wood materials will be required for the doorway and roof beams. Make an internal hearth and a chimney, but if you use sod for them, then make sure that they themselves do not catch fire. Coat the inside of the hearth and chimney with clay. Always place the open side or entrance in such a way that the wind does not blow in them, and if the house is small from turf, then make a hearth outside the entrance and put behind the fire a screen that reflects heat back into the house. Even if you make the entire side open, a slight rotation of the wall will make the corner more solid. At the corners, dress the rows of turf, as is done with conventional brickwork.

Log huts as long-term shelters in an emergency.

Such a structure can be classified as real houses. It can always be expanded by adding new rooms later. The size of the logs determines the size of the walls. For a square or rectangular shape, it is easier to make a roof, a square with a side of 2.5 meters is a very reasonable small size. Pick up a flat area for your hut or level out a slightly larger area. If necessary, remove the slope, the base for the walls should be horizontal. The flexible wire saw from your emergency kit can cut logs of considerable size, and if you become a victim of a plane crash or shipwreck, then there should be a fire ax on board the aircraft and watercraft.

You may be lucky if you come across fallen trees, then you may be able to connect the frame of the logs and fill the space between them. However, it is much better to connect the ends in the corners so that they fit exactly together. Do not trim protruding ends. They give strength to the structure. Help the first row of logs in the shape of the future house. Make cutouts at the ends so that the logs clearly fit together, and cuts on the logs of the next row so that they neatly lie on top. Since the logs have a certain taper, stack them, alternating the top and bottom of the logs in one corner.

Make the front wall higher than the back so that the roof is inclined. The last log in front and behind should protrude significantly beyond the side walls. They will keep the roof. On the transverse log between the side walls, make nicks to lock in place the short logs. Lay the floor slab from front to back so that they protrude beyond the walls. Make notches on them under the crossbars or tie them. There is no need to make a door yet. To prevent the wind from blowing in, hang a blanket or make a wicker panel for the opening, until you feel that you have enough opportunity and time to make a permanent door. As for the windows, also do not worry, the door will provide adequate ventilation..

If water does not come out of the soil, in this case it is useful to make a raised floor later, dig up the earth inside the house to get an earthen mass for mud putty and at the same time increase the height of the room. Fill the gaps between the logs with dirt and wood chips, or if the gaps are too large, use rods before you cover them with dirt. Mix it with grass and moss and with a pointed stick, cover the space between the logs with this mass. Cover the roof with rods or poles, and then apply a layer of dirt and turf.

Instead of a solid roof made of solid logs, lighter materials and dirt can be used on top of the log frame. It is good to use bark from logs as a roof if you lay it like a tile. It can be pinned with small twigs while the dirt is still soft. If you leave a hole in the roof, then the hearth can be arranged inside the hut. But it can not be left unattended, it is better to take the hearth out than to risk being a burnt victim. If there is a lot of stone available, you can make a normal chimney and hearth, you will save more heat if you arrange it in the middle. Stack the stones as tightly as possible, and cover the remaining cracks with small pebbles and dirt.

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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