Home-made sausages in our time are not a common product, but the more we read about the composition of industrial sausages, the more we think that it would be nice to cook this tasty product yourself from meat. And since they decided to smoke food, then why not make smoked home-made sausage.
Making and smoking homemade home-made sausages, cooking minced meat, guts, stuffing the intestines with minced meat, cold and hot smoking.
In fact, the preparation of home-made home-made sausage consists of a series of operations that the average person can afford. Our ancestors also prepared sausage without any factories. Practically any kind of meat is used for home-made sausages, however, pork sausages are the most common, especially in home cooking. At the same time they are prepared both from one pork, and in combination with other types of meat.
Homemade sausage, which is supposed to be smoked, can not be made in a cellophane shell, only the natural gut is suitable for it. When smoked, the natural shell hardens, the sausage mass acquires a special aroma and is painted in a characteristic color – from golden yellow to black-brown. If the sausage has a lot of additives, it can acquire a grayish tint.
The meat for sausages can be cooled, chilled, frozen, but always from healthy animals, without signs of spoilage and burning of fat. Boar meat is not consumed, as it has a specific odor, and it is better not to use frozen pork that has been stored for more than 3 months and meat after a second freeze. There are raw smoked, half-smoked and cooked smoked sausages.
Raw smoked sausages are mainly made from raw meat and lard without the addition of binders. The increase in shelf life is achieved only by drying, aging and subsequent smoking. The addition of curing mixture in the manufacture of sausage meat is required. Raw smoked salami, cervelat, hunting sausage are considered.
Half-smoked sausages, in addition to raw meat and lard, also contain offal and curing mixture. Some types of semi-smoked sausages are treated with hot water..
For boiled-smoked sausages, meat is pre-cooked, then it is passed through a meat grinder along with boiled offal, lard and pig skin. Then the stuffing is placed in a natural shell and boiled. After that, the sausage is smoked in a cold way for about a week. When smoking, it is impossible to put the sausage on the grill, since in places of contact with the rods the smoke will not envelop the product well, and this can lead to its deterioration. Cooked-smoked sausages include liver, blood, brawn and red sausages.
Cooking home-made home-made sausages, cooking minced meat.
To prepare home-made home-made sausage, meat fillet is taken. It should be carefully checked that there are no pieces of bones that could get there if the carcass was chopped with an ax. That is why carcasses intended for sausages are cut with a knife, separating meat from bones. Then the meat is cleaned from films, tendons, cartilage, bruising.
If sausage is supposed to be more lean, then the meat is cut off fat. Then it is cut into pieces of 100-200 g, mixed with salt (30 g of salt per 1 kg of meat) and kept in an enamel bowl in a cold room at a temperature of plus 4-6 degrees for 2-3 days. After that, the meat is passed through a meat grinder with holes in the grill with a diameter of 2-3 mm and a bacon is prepared. It is cut into pieces of 0.5 cm.
Sausage stuffing is prepared from meat prepared in this way, finely chopped bacon and spices are added, and all are thoroughly mixed. The quality of the sausage depends on how well the meat is mixed. At home, this is done with your hands on the table or in a wide bowl, preferably with low edges. Then the minced meat is placed in an enameled dish, covered with a lid, placed again in a cold place and kept for another day. If meat of different animals is used for sausage, then each type of meat is crushed separately, and only then mixed.
Cooking a shell for home-made home-made sausage, gut and stomach of a pig, gut of cattle and sheep.
To make home-made sausages at home, sausage casings are required. For this, the intestines of the pig, cattle and sheep are used, as well as the pig’s stomach. They are processed immediately after the slaughter of animals. If you do this later, they lose elasticity, strength and quickly deteriorate. In urban conditions, guts can only be found in the market, having agreed with sellers to specially process them and bring them to order. In the village, finding them is easier. The intestines obtained from one pig contain 15–16 kg of minced meat. Pork small intestines (pork belly) are used to prepare all grilled sausages and sausages for roasting.
They can also be used for the manufacture of some varieties of hot smoked sausages, as well as raw smoked. For the preparation of thick hot smoked sausages, boiled and raw smoked sausages, other sausage casings (beef, lamb intestines) should be used. In untreated intestines, intestinal fat is carefully removed, the contents are squeezed out and the intestines are thoroughly washed with running water. Then they are placed in a pan with water, heated to plus 40-50 degrees, and kept in it for 4 hours. To process the inner, mucous layer, the intestine is turned inside out with a round stick and soaked for 2 hours.
Small intestines – in water heated to plus 50 degrees, thick – in water heated to plus 85–90 degrees. Then, with a blunt knife, the mucous membrane is carefully scraped off. The cleaned intestines are washed 2-3 times with running water and the last time with water with the addition of potassium permanganate, painted in a pale pink color. Intestinal fat is washed and reheated for food. The cleaned and washed intestines are turned on the front side, cut into pieces of 30–35 cm convenient for stuffing with minced meat and used to prepare sausages, after having tied one end with twine.
Drying and salting guts for making home-made home-made sausages.
If the intestines are not supposed to be used immediately, then you can either pickle them or dry them by hanging them on a rope. When salting, the intestines are thoroughly rubbed with salt, tied, then placed in baskets, kept in them for 12-24 hours so that they are salted and stack the brine, after which they are placed in a pan or tub, sprinkled with salt. For drying, pre-cleaned intestines and bubbles are filled with air, inflated with a straw or tube, tied and hung on ropes for drying. The end of the drying is determined by appearance. The guts should become transparent and rustle when touched.
Dried intestines are freed from the air, wrapped in a ball and stored, protecting from moths. Before use, the salted intestines are washed in warm water. They should be strong, light pink in color and with a specific smell characteristic of freshly salted meat. Immediately before making sausages, the dried intestines are soaked in cold water for 2-3 hours to restore elasticity. If you intend to store the intestines for a long time, they are washed, stacked in glass jars, poured with saturated salt solution and closed with plastic lids. Guts in brine can be stored for up to 5 years.
Stuffing the intestines with minced meat manually, using a horn made of tin, a syringe, a meat grinder.
Before stuffing, the intestines are washed with water and squeezed. Stuffing stuffing can be done by hand or with a horn. Stuffing with their hands, they take a piece of the prepared intestine, tied at one end, stretch with their hand the open end of the intestine and push the stuffing there. After filling with minced meat, the second end of the shell is tied; Faster and easier to stuff the gut with a horn made of tinplate. Stuffing is applied through the wide end of the horn and the pressure of the hand is driven through the narrow end into the intestine. The intestine is tied with twine to the narrow end of the horn, gathered in folds on the horn and stuffed into a stretched shell.
You can also use a hand syringe for stuffing. One end of the intestine is tied with thread or twine, and the other is pulled on the foregrip of the syringe. By clicking on the piston of the syringe, the filling is launched. When filling the syringe with minced meat, you need to make sure that cavities filled with air do not form in it, otherwise there will be voids in the sausage where the liquid (broth) will collect. At home, for stuffing stuffing, you can use a meat grinder by attaching a funnel of tin to it, the diameter of which should be equal to the diameter of the grill of the meat grinder. Before stuffing stuffing, remove the grill and knife from the meat grinder. The intestines are put on the funnel to the knotted end and, holding it with your hand, gradually release the resulting sausage loaf.
Proper casing is very important when cooking sausages. It is not necessary to stuff the stuffing tightly into the shell, since during the heat treatment the minced meat will expand and it may burst. Sausages are packed tightly only for subsequent smoking, during which their volume will decrease. All hot-cooked sausages, as well as raw smoked, should be packed very tightly. To do this, press the sausage casing to the stuffing tube and gradually force the sausage stuffing into the meat grinder. When about 5 cm remains to the end of the sausage casing, it must be removed. The open end of the sausage casing is folded and very tightly bandaged, leaving only a small “tail”. Knitting sausages requires accuracy, as the twine can slip off a slippery shell or weaken the dressing.
Dressing the intestine-shell in the preparation of home-made home-made sausages.
Having made a loop of thin twine on the left hand, force the minced meat in the intestine, and with the right hand tightly tighten the loop at the end of the intestine. At a small distance (0.5–1 cm) from the first dressing, the second puff is done with a simple loop. The resulting “navel” guarantees the strength of the dressing. When stuffing stuffing into the colon, make 2-3 dressings with loops along the length of the loaf. In the manufacture of sausages in the form of a ring, both ends are tied together.
Draft ready-to-smoke home-made home-made sausages.
Loafs and circles of sausage must pass through the draft, for which they are suspended for a while in a cool room. Draft is the self-compaction of the contents of loaves and circles under the influence of its own weight and elasticity of the shell. The exposure time depends on the type of sausage; semi-smoked sausages can withstand about 6 days, raw smoked sausages – 7–20 days. The settling time also depends on the thickness of the loaves. The thicker the sausage, the longer the draft. Precipitation is carried out in a dry, cold (about 0 degrees), well-ventilated area.
Cold smoked homemade homemade sausage.
In industrial production and smoking sausages, four modes are used, but at home they mainly use cold and hot. Dry-smoked and smoked sausages are cooked cold. Multi-day cooking ensures uniform coloring, but it removes a lot of moisture and sausages lose weight. Smoked for at least two days. It is important that the access to fresh air does not stop. After smoking, raw smoked sausages must dry (ripen) in a ventilated room with an air temperature of plus 10-15 degrees. Dried sausage in limbo 1 month.
With insufficient ventilation of the room on the surface of the sausages, especially in places of contact with the twine, mold may appear. Then the moldy places should be washed with salt water, dried in a dry room and continue drying. In no case can not be dried in the cold. Apply cold wet smoking. With it, the temperature of the smoke is also not higher than plus 25 degrees. In the smoking chamber, a container of water must be installed to generate steam. This ensures the maturation of the product at the same time as smoking, prevents the drying of the outer layer of sausage mass. Warm smoking occurs at a temperature not exceeding plus 40 degrees. The smoking process takes from several hours to several days. At a higher temperature, the intestine loses its ability to “breathe”, fat is redistributed, color changes, and an unpleasant taste appears.
Hot smoked homemade homemade sausage.
Hot smoking is a faster way and is most often used at home. It lasts from 12 to 48 hours, the temperature of the smoke plus 70-100 degrees. At the same time, moisture in the product is preserved, and it is well saturated with fat. Such sausages are less resistant in storage, but have a great taste and smell. If the sausage is supposed to be cooked in the future, then smoking is carried out with smoke with a temperature of plus 40-60 degrees. With hot smoking, it is important not only the action of smoke, but also the warming of sausages. Therefore, the hearth is made so that it gives both smoke and heat. For smoking sausages use the same wood as for other products.
Sawdust must be dry. However, if the firewood is very dry, then in order to avoid the formation of excessive flame, they should be slightly moistened. When smoking sausages, you need to remember that if the smoke is very hot, spots and stripes of brown and dark brown will appear on the smoked sausage. The same spots appear if the sausage is put on the grill. Therefore, the sausage must be smoked in limbo. Smoked sausage 2-3 days, then removed and make a trial incision. The pulp should be the same pink color. If the meat is light in the middle, then the product is under-smoked.
Based on materials from the book “Home Smokehouse”.