Any snake must be considered potentially poisonous! Do not try to catch snakes or play with them unless absolutely necessary, even if they are small in size and outwardly lethargic. Poisonous snakes that have just hatched from an egg are also poisonous. Care should be taken in handling dead snakes; in some of them, poison retains its properties for a long time. Accidental injection with a poisonous tooth can cause poisoning. Be careful, and with the snake’s head just cut off, it remains active for some time..
Meeting with poisonous snakes, bites of snakes, first aid for bites of poisonous snakes in the field.
Snakes never attack without warning. Cobra threat pose: vertically raised front third of the body, swollen hood, wiggle from side to side, hissing, reminiscent of sneezing, throws towards the enemy. Cobra is able to make a throw equal to the third part of the length of her body.
. A temperature gradient is created around the animal, allowing the snake to orientate itself correctly. Another feature is the presence of a rattle at the end of the tail, formed by a hard leathery cover remaining after molting the snake. In a state of irritation, these snakes lift the tip of their tail and vibrate with them, emitting a dry crack that is heard from afar.
5. Sea snakes. On the territory of the CIS countries almost never occur.
Snakes belonging to the above families differ in their biology, the structure of the poisonous apparatus, the chemical composition of the poison and the mechanism of toxic action.
Snake poisons are a complex complex of biologically active compounds: enzymes (including digestive), mainly hydralases, toxic polypeptides, a number of proteins with specific biological properties, neurotoxins that disrupt the excitation period in neuromuscular synapses and thereby cause flaccid paralysis of skeletal and respiratory muscles.
First aid for venomous snake bites in the field.
First aid for poisonous snake bites should be mainly limited to immobilization and quick transportation to a medical facility (if the victim is no more than 3-4 hours from the hospital). Immobilization contributes to a significant slowdown in the spread of poison. It should be noted that snake venoms spread throughout the body mainly through the lymphatic, and not through the bloodstream. It is known that out of a motionless limb lymph outflow is negligible.
Therefore, when immobilizing a limb bitten by poisonous snakes, the general symptoms of poisoning develop very slowly and do not reach a high degree of severity, but with increased movement, the symptoms of poisoning increase sharply. It is only necessary to transport patients bitten by poisonous snakes in a prone position, limbs should be immobilized using a tire or various improvised means. You cannot walk or sit with the affected person, because dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and fainting often occur..
Snake venom suction and skin incisions.
This method is only effective for the first 10 minutes from the time of the bite. Suction is carried out both by mouth and by special vacuum extractors creating a negative pressure of up to 1 atm. In the first seconds after a bite, it is permissible to squeeze the first drop of poison. For extrusion, it is necessary to grab the bite into the fold widely and quickly squeeze a drop of liquid from the wound, after which the wound becomes gaping and serous or bloody liquid can be sucked out of the mouth.
Suctioning the mouth and swallowing snake venom is not dangerous, but people with sores or abrasions in their mouth should refrain from sucking the venom. The mouth after suction of the poison must be thoroughly rinsed without fail! The use of alcohol is contraindicated, as this accelerates the absorption process and the strength of the toxic effect of the poison. Suction of snake venom is also possible through skin incisions that intersect the marks of snake fangs, but always parallel to the long axis of the limb or trunk to avoid damage to nerve trunks and blood vessels. Make incisions no deeper than subcutaneous fat. Too deep cuts are contraindicated.
Features of applying a tourniquet for venomous snake bites.
Further recommendations mainly concern people who are far from medical facilities in the field. These are those who are engaged in livestock breeding, are on expeditions, make outing trips away from populated areas. In such situations, with a snake bite, a tourniquet should be applied.
The imposition of a tourniquet in its standard sense, tight application in order to stop venous and arterial blood flow is contraindicated, since the absorption of the poison will pass through the deep bony veins, and a long constriction of the limb enhances the primary damage, and also helps to connect the poison with the products of tissue metabolism. After removing such a tourniquet, a sharp deterioration is noted.
Proper Lymphatic Turnstile Overlay with Snake Bites.
Dressings 2-4 cm wide are applied loosely so that the finger of the hand passes fairly freely between the skin and the dressing. Such a turnstile stops lymph circulation and blood flow in the superficial veins. It is unacceptable to use traditional methods of first aid for bitten by snakes in order to neutralize the poison, burning the site of the bite with hot iron, boiling oil, gunpowder, introducing various acids and alkalis into the bite zone.
All these drugs do not destroy the poison and do not weaken its effect on the body, but, on the contrary, increase tissue necrotization and the severity of the condition of the victim. As a preventive agent for first aid, the introduction of polyvalent antiperspirant serum can be used. This serum can also be effective in the bites of poisonous arachnids..
How to distinguish a venomous snake from a non-venomous snake, some signs. Small video.
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Maslov A.G., Konstantinov Yu.S., Latchuk V.G..