For a bonfire, it is preferable to choose a place protected from the wind, not closer than 5-6 meters from tents, trees, shrubs. So that sparks do not fly at them. There should not be branches above the fire, but roots protruding from the ground below. Never make a bonfire in coniferous young growth, near a grain field, on a layer of dry grass, needles, moss.
Methods of making a campfire, making a campfire in the rain, the most popular types of bonfires in the campaign.
Uncontrolled bonfire flame can spread at wind speed. When a bonfire is built on placers of stones in a forest or on a peat bog, the fire will go deep, and even a well-poured bonfire can catch fire after many hours. For a bonfire, it is advisable to use an old campfire. If it is not there, they remove the sod at the chosen place and put it in the shade with the earth up.
Near the future bonfire in a radius of 0.5-1 meters, clear the earth of everything that can catch fire from sparks of dry needles, leaves. You can quickly light a fire if you put it in an empty tin can lined with branches in the form of a pyramid, paper or a rag soaked in grease or diesel fuel, and set it on fire. You should not light a fire under a tree covered with snow, because the heat from the snow can fall off and extinguish it. It is better to collect the kindling on the way, and not in the parking lot or berth, where it may not be.
To make a bonfire in the snow, you need to chop 6-7 raw poles with a thickness of 8-10 cm and a length of 1.5 meters. At the right place, the snow is compacted and laid on it close to each other poles. They make a fire on them. This method can be used for short-term parking. Until the flame burns, cover it from rain and wind; for example, let someone hold a tent from a tent or a raincoat on top, make a wall of stones or sticks.
Fire from a kindling should touch not yet burning chips.
Then gradually lay firewood thicker. Do not rush to put a large log; it will not light up and extinguish the fire. Do not heap firewood, but lay at intervals so that there is air access to the flame. It is dangerous and ineffective to use gasoline for kindling; it ignites instantly, like an explosion, and quickly burns out before it can dry and burn firewood.
The most popular types of bonfires.
A bonfire such as a hut is usually used for kindling, cooking food in one bowl or in the rain. Bonfires such as Well, Star, Taiga give a good heat and form a lot of coals, it is convenient to cook food in 2-3 buckets or cauldrons at the same time.
. A kindling is some kind of material that can give a sufficiently large flame for a short time so that completely thin dry match-thick branches take up from it. Then put more twigs, approaching the thickness of a pencil. When these ones flare up, they put the next ones, the thickness of a finger. So, gradually, they put more and more thick firewood in the fire.
It is clear that all firewood must be dry. Paper is usually used for kindling, less often bark. It is only necessary to remember that it is unacceptable to remove the birch birch for kindling, growing near the bivouac. Birch bark is usually stored for future use when a rotten or fallen tree is found during the transition. Experienced tourists often do without paper or birch bark. As a kindling, they use either a very thin splinter (almost shavings), which are taken from the middle of a dry log chopped along, or what tourists call a spider web small dry spruce branches. They can almost always be found on a large spruce, if you look under the hanging branches at the trunk.
The kindling is usually laid directly on the ground, and on top of it are placed twigs or arms from the first batch of fuel, but not the entire harvested cobweb or splinter, but only a part of them, so that the kindling does not turn out to be littered with them. The kindling should be ignited from below, then it will burn all, to the end. If you light the kindling from above, then often only its upper part burns out, and then the flame goes out: the fire down spreads very poorly. It is better to set fire to the kindling in the form of bundles of cobwebs or lances while keeping it on weight. The thinner the bore or twigs, the easier they light up, but the faster they burn out.
Those that go to the kindling or the first batch of fuel are comparable in thickness to a match and very often burn no longer than a match. Therefore, the first two or three minutes all the time you need to very quickly put new and new fuel into the fire. At the same time, you can not throw it into the fire as horrible. It is necessary to lay fuel in a bonfire so that between the branches, bends or chocks there are gaps necessary for air access.
Then the fire will flare up well. When the web has flared up, it is necessary to float the rest of its supply. A few twigs from the next batch of fuel, say a pencil thick one, are put on a flaming web. Flaring up, they will serve as a fuse for the entire batch of firewood. Thus, the thickness of the knots and logs laid in the bonfire gradually increases. A campfire can be considered finished when a small pile of hot smoldering coals is obtained. Until coals are formed in the fire, it can go out very easily..
Matches, their sealing and storage.
The group must have matches in waterproof packaging. Each participant in the campaign must have their own box of fully sealed matches. In addition to the group supply and in addition to the usual matches. And they keep these matches not somewhere in the backpack, but always with them. If a tourist goes in a stormcloth, they lie in a breast pocket; removing the windbreaker, he immediately shifts the matches into trousers or into the shirt pocket. Different methods are used to seal matches. You can put a few matches along with the side wall from the matchbox in an empty hunting case, which then pour paraffin.
You can remove the box of matches, wrapped in paper, in a metal box, and then fill the joint of the lid with the body with sealing wax. Instead of sealing wax, you can use insulation tape and adhesive tape. It is simpler but less reliable. A combination of several methods gives good results. For example, putting matches in a metal box, and then put it in a plastic bag. A simple and effective way to preserve matches is as follows: matches should be dipped in molten wax (paraffin). After this treatment, they are not afraid of damp and light up even in the rain..
Features of a bonfire in the rain.
To successfully light a fire in the rain, you need to have an artificial kindling taken with you from home, not afraid of moisture, dry alcohol tablets, pieces of celluloid or plexiglass, candle cinder. It’s hard to say which is better: each traveler has his own preferences. Perhaps it’s more convenient to have a candle. Dry alcohol can not always be found, and celluloid and plexiglass easily flare up and burn very intensely, but also burn out quite quickly. It’s convenient to use a candle if you want it to be preserved and it can be used in the future.
Therefore, when a bonfire is lit with a candle, a piece of a centimeter and a half high is cut from its end, sometimes not a whole candle is taken directly from the house, but only a small piece from it, put this cinder on the ground, light it, and then begin to lay a cobweb on top or a thin hole, so that it touches the upper half of the tongue of fire, but not the wick. Otherwise, the candle may go out easily..
For this, the spider web is usually laid with a hut or it is placed on a larger branch, in the manner of a taiga fire of the second type, but only in several layers. The candle burns for a long time, the flame is kept in one place all the time, the cobweb or small hole gradually dries up and begins to flare up. In this case, the candle plays the same role as a pile of coals in relation to the logs when making a large fire. Of course, at the same time, you can’t expect at any time to remove the candle stub to use it again. He will burn in the fire.
It must be borne in mind that even if thin branches of the cobweb can be wet from the surface, then thicker batches of fuel will be wet. To make them ignite faster, you can use the old taiga way. To do this, you need to take a sharp knife and cut shavings on these sticks, without separating it, however, completely from the stick. Let a curly nimbus form on it from one end.
Such incendiary sticks light up very quickly. If the chips turned out to be quite small and thick, then you can set fire even directly from the kindling, along with a cobweb and a splinter. It is necessary to prepare several such sticks, on the other branches and branches of the second and third batch of fuel, also make incisions. They may not be so deep, but they should be located along the entire length and better from different sides. By the way, sometimes it’s useful to strip even a splinter in this way..
When the bonfire flames up enough to begin to lay larger firewood with a thickness of one hand or more, it is necessary to make similar cutouts on them along the entire length, only, of course, now with an ax. Better yet, chop each log along. The inner layers of the wood remain unaffected by moisture, no matter how heavy the rain, and light up quite easily.
The design of the fire also to a certain extent determines the success of the business. Of the structures described above, the taiga fire of the second type, three logs, a hut, and the taiga fire of the third type correspond best to this. A taiga bonfire of the second type will be especially good if it is folded from logs chopped along the length and laid them close or almost close to each other. The logs are facing the rain by the root and have a slope, like the roof of a house. Water rolls down them, and only a very small part of it reaches the fire.