Modern crossbows. Basics, terminology, classification

This is a model of human progress. After all, the distance has been more quickly than the distance. Someone wants to touch crossbow you can shoot at the target. Most newbies in crossbow business There are many questions that can be asked to buy or manufacture, how to “block”, “guide”, “shako”, “cable”, how to “block”?

Indeed, the armies are experiencing some kind of “Renaissance” in our time. Any citizen who has reached the age of 18 and has a passport with him can purchase crossbow with arc force up to 43 kg, which has a corresponding certificate. Naturally, there are limitations – in our country crossbows They are considered weapons of more than 43 kg, they are considered weapons. That is, even though a hunting ticket, hunt with crossbow until fate. It will be a little bit more than that. for error, since reloading the crossbow, even with a platoon lever, takes a lot of time. Naturally, on the hunter with crossbow There is a greater responsibility and a wounded animal is not. The shot should be made from a short distance with the life of the animal.

Fig.1. The main parts of the crossbow.Fig.1. The main parts of the crossbow.

Where it came from crossbow (crossbow), and explain what parts the crossbows consist of, what are the types of ammunition, tensioning devices, etc.

1. The main parts of the crossbow and the basic terms

Modern crossbow, It is a rule of thumb. design undergone enough strong changes.

Fig.2. Crossbow with a single lodge guideFig.2. Crossbow with a single lodge guide

First, we recommend the layout of the apparatus, the so-called “classic” layout. The pattern is not a solid arc. But since the vast majority modern crossbows has such separate shoulders, they actually are the “classics” of our time.

All parts of the crossbow are the guide. there is crossbows, there is no such part. In this case, the guide has been placed. Example of such crossbow in fig.2. It also has simpler ones – straight shoulders. The guide should not have any bends and curvatures. You can understand the crooked barrel. The winding of the bowstring. Also, additionally use a lubricant. The bowstring is rubbed with wax (bee or special for a bowstring).

As mentioned above, in most modern crossbows we have two separate arms. If you want to use it, it will help you; secondly, it allows to arrange shoulders more parallel to the guide; and, thirdly, for easy transportation. It is very important that both parameters have the same characteristics in physical terms.

Fig.3. Crossbow-gun with a separate superstructure above the castleFig.3. Crossbow-gun with a separate superstructure above the castle

It is a part of the body shape and geometry. The shooter will depend on the strength. There is a high enough level.

Bowstring is an important and very important part. crossbow. It is a jerk well. Mostly, daynema (Dyneema). It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been selected as the bowstring. It is a winding path. Such as winding is mainly a warhead where the bowstring wears the hardest.

At the rear of the rail mount, which is also called the lock. The trigger is a lever. It can be assembled directly into the rail. If you’re missing a lock SM housing crossbow In the upper part, it usually has a superstructure, on which sights or strips, such as dovetail, Weaver or Picatinny, are mounted under various optical or collimator sights. It can be used for a boom, it can be used for a boom cross.

Fig.4. Assembling the main parts of the crossbowFig.4. Assembling the main parts of the crossbow

It is a separate piece to crossbow above SM (fig.3). It is possible to adjust the distance of the inclination, which can be adjusted. Although it’s not a lot of sense, it’s 200 m is quite large. Naturally, the slaughter at this distance is small.

A little about the bed crossbow. In principle, large differences from lodges firearms, it is not. The line of the butt is located above. If you’re not already in the box, you’re looking at the box itself. It is shown in Fig.4.

2. Classification of crossbows

According to state standards of the Russian Federation [Change No. 1 GOST R 51905-2002 Sports crossbows, crossbows for recreation and entertainment. Technical requirements and test methods for safety], crossbows can be divided into:

  • It was a training program for the competition;
  • crossbows sports (traditional, field, etc.);
  • It is intended for leisure and mass sports;
  • crossbows, made by homemade method (in terms of conducting forensic examinations).

The main criterion of the crossbow arcs (Table 1).

For the same guest table (Table 2). Standards of the Russian Federation.

Fig.5. Sports match crossbow.

Fig.5. Sports match crossbow.

But I would like to offer a slightly different classification. modern crossbows.
Classification by appointment:

  1. Sports match crossbows
  2. Replicas, replicas of antique crossbows
  3. Crossbows for fun and relaxation
  4. Hunting crossbows.

Fig.6. Replica of a medieval crossbow (author'Dirty' Burdwood)Fig.6. Replica of a Medieval Crossbow (by ‘Dirty’ Burdwood)

WITH match crossbows (Fig. 5), in general, it is a concept, according to the Russian Federation, a weapon. We will not dwell on them in detail.

Next, second class, go and replicas vintage crossbows – combat, sporting and hunting crossbows, made before the XX century. This is a Greek style, an arquebuses (crossbows with a barrel), and a pair of hooks, with a “goat leg”, with an English collar, with kranekinom. For most users, will be weapons. It can be seen that it can be a little bit different (Fig. 6).

Materials for manufacture can be any, including a variety of polymers. Like these ones crossbows may well fit 43 kg. Copies and replicas vintage crossbows, mostly as souvenir-museum products, as well as the paths of fans-reenactors of these weapons. Although there is a large number of arbalet unions that specialize specifically in vintage crossbows, hold meetings, exhibitions and shooting competitions. But still, such crossbows It is also possible to use it for the ammunition (again, the notorious “43 kg”) .

Some kind of comparison – a fascination with old crossbows. It is a kind of aestheticism, it is about their hobby: “… You can smoke this cigarette on the run, at work, in the toilet. The pipe is a ritual. Choose an hour or two, relax. Let the vanity leave you for a while. Slowly and gently drive the tube. Comfortably sit back in your favorite chair. Mouthful of fragrant smoke. Let’s a lot of disolve in it. It is your choice. It is more difficult to find out

Fig.7. Bowtech & quot; Desert Stryker & quot;Fig.7. Bowtech “Desert Stryker”

Let us turn to the so-called crossbows for fun and relaxation. Most on the market crossbows, just this class. This includes crossbow pistols and rifle-type crossbows all designs, not exceeding the effort in coking the string in 43 kg. There is a lot of peace of mind in our country. Although it is especially true of the crossbows, it can be a small game and bird. For example, the “Desert Stryker” Bowtech holders in bowling speed (Fig. 7) were 43 kg.

No major design differences in hunting crossbows not. There are up to 80 kg crossbows. This is a “three or four blades hunting tip” to the target. Naturally, hunting crossbows – It is always the most expensive and most well-equipped vehicles.
Classification by design of the power unit.

  1. Classic Shoulder Crossbows:
    a) with simple shoulders;
    b) with recursive shoulders.
  2. Block Crossbows:
    a) with a polyspast system in 2, 4, 6 and 8 rollers;
    b) with eccentric round blocks;
    c) with oval eccentric blocks;
    d) with binary eccentrics.
  3. Crossbows with non-classical shoulder position:
    a) with back shoulders;
    b) with a system of rollers (blocks).

Let us analyze in order the above listed structures. It is a straight or slightly curved backing. Most vintage crossbows had monoluk, in modern crossbows split shoulders became more common.

Fig.8. ExcaliburFig.8. Excalibur “Apex Light” Crossbow

It is a model for the teenage generation. a) and it can be seen from Fig. 2.

The main number modern crossbows The “classic” layout is completed with recursive shoulders. It should be noted that it should be noted at the ends. For example, go forward, go ahead, go forward, go forward, go forward, go forward, go forward, go ahead. The degree of recursion can be widely. Almost all crossbows are manufactured by the company Excalibur company have such shoulders (fig.9, 10).

Fig. 9. Crossbow ExcaliburFig. 9. Crossbow Excalibur “Equinox” with recursive shoulders.

Fig. 10. The front of the ExcaliburFig. 10. The front of the Excalibur “VIXEN” crossbow with shoulders without a bowstring.

Recursive shoulders can also be mono (fig. 11) or split.

And simple and recursive shoulders made with narrowing from root to end. Often and in width – and in thickness. It can be seen that even when it comes to the neckline, it can be seen.

Recursiveness helps to achieve even greater efficiency. It is a curve that ends up on the back of a ball. It’s a little bit that we’ve overcome this resistance. It is clear that there has been a lot of effort. effort until the very end. In fact, there is a change in the “gear ratio” to the string.

The state is prestressed, it is a preload. It has been noted that the preload of the bowstring. That is, there is where it is made. There is no need for a shooter’s injury.

Fig.12. The polyspast. a is a single block (with a single pulley); b - a combination of two single blocks with a single cable, covering both pulleys; (c) a pair of double-stranded blocks, along the paired grooves of a single cable passes.Fig.12. Pulley. a is a single block (with a single pulley); b – a combination of two single blocks with a single cable, covering both pulleys; (c) a pair of double-stranded blocks, along the paired grooves of a single cable passes.

The next stage in the development of the crossbows were systems with a tackle. One round more movable rollers (Figure 12). In the case of the pulley, it is possible to reduce the number of times for the bowstring

Also allows you to reduce the transverse dimensions. crossbow, since the course of the workout. There are no limits on the use of the system. the cable of the cable (bowstring significant).

In fig. 13 rolls of the bowstring increases.

Fig.13. Comparison of polyspast system with simple shoulders.Fig.13. Comparison of polyspast system with simple shoulders.

At most polyspast crossbows factory designs eight rollers (Fig. 14). With two rollers, crossbows are extremely rare (Fig. 15), it is possible to make a crossbow “Lynx” from Zmeelink (Fig. 16). There are many self-made vehicles with four rollers (fig.17), there are also factory-made ones (fig.18).

Fig.14. Crossbow Interloper Black Python.Fig.14. Crossbow Interloper Black Python.

Fig.15. Ralph’s CrossbowFig.15. Ralph’s Crossbow

At the factory and many improvised crossbows, the middle rollers are in fig. It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been legally fixed on it. and straightening of the shoulders (Fig. 16, 19).

Fig. 16. Zmeelink’s Lynx CrossbowFig. 16. Zmeelink’s Lynx Crossbow

Fig. 17. Crossbow from daf13Fig. 17. Crossbow from daf13

Fig. 18. Crossbow Pistol InterloperFig. 18. Crossbow Pistol Interloper “Asp”.

Fig. 19. Crossbow with eight rollers, medium fixed rigidlyFig. 19. Crossbow with eight rollers, medium fixed rigidly

It has been noted that it has been possible to follow the rules of the polyspast system. to each other. This is the sharper. Of course, if this is significantly reduced, then this will significantly reduce the distance. Therefore, it is worth looking for a “middle ground” – and the shoulders are rarely placed below the angle. A good solution is pseudo-parallel shoulders (Fig. 19a).

Fig. 19a. Pseudo-parallel shoulders, by igoraFig. 19a. Pseudo-parallel shoulders, by igora

It was confirmed that he was in the middle of the game. Along the way, the gear ratio of the chain hoist increases. There are only two added options for this example. Well, and (and most importantly!) It is a long string, but no longer than the 8th roller. “

Shoulder polyspast crossbows It is a rule that it’s made it possible to make it a little bit more than that of a “classical” systems.

The material of the factory shoulders – unidirectional fiberglass. Self-made, most often, – springs from cars,

There is a definite gear ratio between the polyspast transmits and the distance through the stroke. It makes it possible to increase the ratio between the ballast and the bowstring. There were so-called blocks that appeared.

There are no limits on how much you can do. One of the simplest blocks is the eccentric round blocks. This is a more complicated system compared to a chain hoist (Fig. 20). There are two types of bowstrings, one , which directly accelerates the boom (white with red winding, Fig. 21).

Fig.20. Round eccentric blocks (hole under the axis is highlighted)Fig.20. Round eccentric blocks (hole under the axis is highlighted)

Fig. 21. System with round eccentric blocksFig. 21. System with round eccentric blocks

The eccentric blocks are shown in fig. 22. It is not possible to see what it’s been like (Fig. 21). ).

It wasn’t much of a boom. Therefore, it has been shown that it has been under no circumstances a power bowstring (Fig. 22).

Fig.22a. Arrangement of blocks, bowstring and pressing parts (top view)Fig.22a. Arrangement of blocks, bowstring and pressing parts (top view)

Fig.22b. Arrangement of blocks, bowstring and pressing parts (bottom view)Fig.22b. Arrangement of blocks, bowstring and pressing parts (bottom view)

It is a fact that there is a reduction in the rate of tension. Therefore, crossbows It has been shown that it has been shown that it has been measured for the first time.

Fig. 23. BarnettFig. 23. Barnett “Lightning” crossbow with round eccentrics.

The next stage of development crossbows oval eccentrics (Fig. 24.). The shape of these blocks is more complex. It is not controlled by the fact that it is not only by way of blocking it. This course of work during the course of work. It can be seen at the bottom of the page.

It is possible to make it. Examples of crossbows with oval eccentrics in fig. 26, 27, 28.

Fig. 24. Oval eccentric blocksFig. 24. Oval eccentric blocks

Fig. 25. Illustration of the work of an oval (by andrey 74)Fig. 25. Illustration of the work of an oval (by andrey 74)

Fig.26. Ten pointFig.26. Ten Point “Phantom”

Fig. 27. DartonFig. 27. Darton “Serpent”

Fig. 28. Crosser ParkerFig. 28. Crosser Parker “SAFARI CLASSIC”

On some models crossbows If so, the blocks are placed on the mirror so-called “mirror blocks” (Fig. 29). In this case, the crossbow becomes more compact in the longitudinal direction.

Fig. 29. Crosser ParkerFig. 29. Crosser Parker “Cyclone”

Recently, there has been a tendency to increase the number of blocks. By winding the bowstrings from the blocks, we get more bowstring, crossbows can still be reduced. The bowstring of crossbows approached 45 cm! Speed ​​are crossbows PSE “TAC-15” (fig. 30) and Bowtech “Stryker” (Figure 32). Both crossbow unique in their own way.

Let us dwell on TAC-15. It is clear that there is a distance of 42.5 cm, and a cocked position of 29.8 cm. And the bowstring course is record for crossbow – 45 cm! The weighing 425 grains (26.44 g) at a speed of 125.6 m / s. Record for crossbows at this time. The kinetic energy has been developed for the hunting of any large animal. The crossbow is an unusual rifle AR-15 (M16) – as you know, this rifle has a modular design (Fig. 31). Therefore, any weapon based on M16, can easily be turned into crossbow. TAC-15 It has a built-in winch-type cocking device. One of the most important things to do is to take a glance. The record length for crossbows is 26.25 inches (~ 66.7 cm)!

Fig. 30. Crossbow PSEFig. 30. Crossbow PSE “TAC-15”.

Fig. 31. Rifle AR-15Fig. 31. Rifle AR-15

Fig. 32. Bowtech Crossbow & quot; Stryker & quot;Fig. 32. Bowtech “Stryker” Crossbow

Bowtech “Stryker” Crossbow Arrow weighing 425 m / s, for example, cm, with a bowstring stroke of 432 mm. But Stryker has one feature – binary eccentrics, block crossbows.

What are their differences between binary eccentrics and ordinary oval? We will try to figure it out. Everyone has block crossbows There is a possibility that there will be a problem. It has been noted that the system can be used in the case of the synchronization system (Figure 33). In fig. 34 shows for eccentric block bow.

Fig. 33. Illustration of the eccentrics from igoraFig. 33. Illustration of the eccentrics from igora

Fig. 34. Binary eccentric block bowFig. 34. Binary eccentric block bow

Still ingenious Leonardo da Vinci came up with a scheme crossbows with back shoulders (Fig. 35), and only recently, crossbows of such a scheme began to be mass-produced. The first swallow was crossbow Armcross “LeoPro”, created by Russian designers (Fig.36). It is a compactness of the crossbows that can be used to reduce the size of the body. . In fig. 37 shows how compact LeoPro is. Of disadvantages crossbow We can distinguish a sharp angle of stringing (.) pure fig fig fig fig fig oon) face, can cause injury if broken.

Fig. 35. Schemes of Leonardo da VinciFig. 35. Schemes of Leonardo da Vinci

Fig. 36. Armcross & quot; LeoPro & quot; CrossbowFig. 36. Armcross “LeoPro” Crossbow

Fig. 37. Armcross & quot; LeoPro & quot; Crossbow with a specially designed unloading vestFig. 37. Armcross “LeoPro” crossbow with a specially designed unloading vest

Fig. 38. Firing a crossbow Armcross & quot; LeoPro & quot; using tensioner (shown below right)Fig. 38. Cocking an Armcross “LeoPro” Crossbow with a Tensioner (shown below to the right)

Fig. 39. Horton “Recon 175” CrossbowFig. 39. Horton “Recon 175” Crossbow

One more crossbow with back shoulders is produced by the company. Horton – “Recon 175” (fig. 39). It has been shown that it’s not possible to achieve 99 m / s.

Such crossbows It has been chosen that it will be “run away” from it.

Recently, another player appeared in the camp. crossbows with back shoulders – “Scorpyd” (Fig. 40). According to new trends, his blocks are binary and large. It is 425 feet per second, which corresponds to 129.5 m / s! The bowstring course compact crossbow reaches a record 52 cm!

Fig. 40. CrossbowFig. 40. Crossbow “Scorpyd” SLP

Among homemade products are also found crossbows similar design. Almost everyone has a “LeoPro” design, but mainly with a two-roller or four-roller system (fig.41, 42, 43).

Fig.41. Crossbow from OLEKSFig.41. Crossbow from OLEKS

Fig.42. Crossbow from sa1982Fig.42. Crossbow from sa1982

Fig. 43. Crossbow from FrankFig. 43. Crossbow from Frank

So, it’s time to touch it up. crossbow, which was released by a Swiss company Swiss Crossbow Makers – “Twinbow II” (Fig. 44). This is a kind of cocking device (Fig.45). With compact dimensions (length 875 mm, width 420 mm) and a bowstring only 197 mm When pulling the bowstring, it becomes almost parallel, both ends of each shoulder work through the system. As a result, recoil when shooting from such a powerful crossbow is almost not felt.

Fig.44. Crossbow “Twinbow II”Fig.44. Crossbow “Twinbow II”

Fig.45. Cocking a crossbow “Twinbow II”Fig.45. Cocking a crossbow “Twinbow II”

There are several homemade crossbows, made according to the “Twinbow II” scheme. On crossbow gunsmith111 (Fig.46) implemented twin system without platoon lever. But on crossbows shushai is a platoon lever (Fig. 47 and 48).

Fig. 46. ​​Crossbow from gunsmith111Fig. 46. ​​Crossbow from gunsmith111

Fig. 47. CrossbowFig. 47. Crossbow “Dusk” by shushai

Fig. 48. CrossbowFig. 48. Crossbow “Cyclone” from shushai

Alexander Dyachenko (DAS), November 2011 (edited by igora with Zmeelink clarifications)

Modern crossbows. Basics, terminology, classification. Part 1

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