In the mid-80s, the Manat-6 portable emergency reserve (NAZ) was introduced into the practice of providing manned space flights, the food group of which consisted of freeze-dried products. However, it turned out to have significant shortcomings, so the development of additional Expedition series power modules was undertaken.
NAZ Granat-6 wearable emergency reserve food group, its shortcomings, development of additional Expedition series power modules.
With the total mass of the daily ration of the wearable emergency reserve ANAZ Granat-6 at 700 g, it provided a calorie supply of 2850-3000 kcal. It included ready-to-use freeze-dried briquetted products:
Curd with blackcurrant puree.
Tile fruit “Nuts with prunes”.
Shortcomings of the food group of the portable emergency reserve NAZ Granat-6 identified during its testing.
Full-scale tests of the Grenad-6 NAZ conducted in the midlands (Zailiysky Alatau, Mizhzhilki pass, 3250 meters high), deserts in summer (Karakum, deserted border guards) and in the Arctic (ice airfield in the vicinity of Vorkuta) showed that food NAZA group mainly provides the metabolic needs of the body when exposed to adverse factors in these regions.
However, in the mid-mountains, this food did not prevent the testers from developing acute mountainous illness, and in the desert, the testers refused to use the freeze-dried protein portion of the diet, which contributed to the growth of dehydration and increased thirst.
Under conditions of exposure to low temperatures, this diet did not provide the maintenance of the required level of wakefulness and did not contribute to a sufficient thermogenic effect. In this regard, steps were taken to develop a specialized functional nutrition “Expedition” to increase the tolerance of adverse factors of various climatic and geographical areas.
Given the specificity of the directions of correction of a person’s functional state in conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia and hypothermia, this product was developed in the form of three modifications: “Expedition-mountains”, “Expedition-desert”, “Expedition-Arctic”.
Features of the additional specialized functional nutrition “Expedition”.
In situations of exposure to the human body of extreme climatic and geographical factors (oxygen deprivation, high or low ambient temperature), additional modules of the Expedition series are introduced into the complex functional nutrition of NAZ. These are “Expedition-Mountains”, “Expedition-Desert”, “Expedition-Arctic”.
These modules contain specialized biologically active natural components that increase the tolerance of oxygen starvation module “Expedition Mountains”. Heat exhaustion and hyperreaction of stress systems of the body to overheat the module “Expedition-Desert”. Or enhancing the body’s heat production under cold stress, the Expedition-Arctic module).
Expedition-mountains add-on module.
To increase the body’s resistance to oxygen deficiency (hypoxia), biologically active components were included in its composition:
– Polylactate, a short-chain lactic acid polymer, capable of increasing the buffer capacity of blood due to the short-term binding of lactic acid to the blood, which has shown good efficacy against anaerobic endurance indicators of athletes when taken in the form of a drink.
– Dimethylaminoethanol, a precursor of acetylcholine in the nerve endings, easily penetrating the blood-brain barrier. In combination with vitamins, minerals and adaptogens, it is part of the Energin preparation and is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.
– Amber, malic, citric, alpha-ketoglutaric acid. Acids of the Krebs cycle, providing the possibility of ATP generation by mitochondria under conditions of oxygen deficiency.
– Phosphoinositol, ATP precursors that support the energy potential of cells under hypoxia.
– Vitamins and trace elements that provide basic carbohydrate oxidation reactions with necessary cofactors.
– Plant polyphenolic complexes providing shunting of the electron flow in the respiratory chain bypassing the zones of hypoxic blockade. These include greenback epigaloctechins, greenhouse coffee chlorogenic acids, edeuterosides, schizandrins and adaptogen panaxazides.
Optional module “Desert Expedition”.
The analysis carried out on the problem of increasing the tolerance of hyperthermia by means of specialized functional nutrition made it possible to form the Expedition – Desert module, which should include the following components:
– Minerals, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium gluconate, sodium phosphate. To compensate for their losses with sweat.
– Carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, maltodextrin. To support energy metabolism.
– Multivitamin complex, vitamins A, C, D3, B1, B2, PP, B5, B6, H, B12, folic acid. To maintain homeostatic potential.
– Licorice root extract containing glycyrrhizic acid – to maintain the level of steroids in the body.
– Linden flower extract containing polysaccharides. To reduce the severity of drying of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.
– Acids of the Krebs cycle, citric and succinic. To stimulate digestion, eliminate blood alkalosis, and provide mitochondria with substrates for energy production.
This product is a dry concentrate for the preparation of an isotonic drink. Packaged in disposable bags weighing 15 g, designed to dissolve in 450-500 ml of water.
Expedition-Arctic add-on module.
Increasing human tolerance of low temperatures during polar expeditions requires a basic module of increased calorie content with a predominance of carbohydrate and fatty components over protein, lecithin, as well as a complete set of vitamins to support intense oxidation reactions of carbohydrates and lipids. Such a module can be implemented as a powder for preparing a cocktail. Its reception is recommended 2-3 times a day.
In addition, a thermogenic module is required, the action of the active components of which is aimed at intensifying heat production and increasing the overall tone of the body. Maintaining its level of vitality and physical activity is necessary for the effective flow of muscle thermogenesis. Such a module can be implemented in the form of a special carbohydrate-lipid bar, which will need to be consumed every 3-5 hours of active work at low temperatures.
The Expedition-Arctic thermogenic module should include:
– Carbohydrate matrix, glucose, fructose, maltodextrin.
– The lipid matrix. Medium chain triglycerides – milk fat or coconut oil, as well as lecithin.
– Chelated complex of iodine with whey proteins.
– Substrates of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Succinic, Fumaric, Malic, or Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acids.
– Thermogenic matrix. Caffeine, an extract of orange containing synephrine – a selective activator of B3 adrenergic receptors of fat cells, extracts of bitter and cayenne peppers, yohimbe bark, containing a presynaptic A2 adrenergic receptor yohimbine that inhibits the sympathetic regulation of physiological functions.
– Extracts of adaptogenic plants with a tonic effect, magnolia vine fruits, rhodiola roots, ginseng roots.
One of the technological difficulties associated with the inclusion of the thermogenic matrix components in such a bar is that a number of components (extracts of orange, black and cayenne peppers) have a pronounced unpleasant burning-bitter taste, which does not allow their use in functional foods in effective dosages.
Therefore, these components must be pre-encapsulated in a shell that dissolves in the stomach or intestines and protects the oral receptors from irritation by these components.
Based on materials from the book Physiological Foundations of Human Life under Extreme Conditions.
V. S. Novikov, S. I. Soroko.