Scope sniper optical PSO-1 and its modifications are still one of the main sights for Russian sniper weapons, which are in service with the Armed Forces and the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. It was developed in 1963 for the Dragunov sniper rifle, adopted by the USSR Armed Forces in the same year. Subsequently, the sight was mounted both on Kalashnikov assault rifles, and on special weapons, such as the Vintorez VSS, AS VAL, and other firearms equipped with a bracket for this device.
It is intended for firing at small-sized targets located at a distance of up to 1,300 meters, and is mounted on a special dovetail mount. Keeps full working capacity in the range of temperatures from – 50 to + 50 ° C without fogging of optics at their sharp drop.
Filled with nitrogen, sealed, the backlight of the nets allows aiming at dusk and darkness. The integrated distance scale allows you to determine the distance to the target.
|Basic information and technical characteristics of the optical sniper PSO-1 sight|
|Type of:||optical sniper|
|A country:||the USSR|
|Year of creation:||1963|
|Years of manufacture:||1963 – present|
|Manufacturer:||Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant|
|Options (modifications):||PSO 1-1; PSO-1M2 / PSO-1M2-1, PSO-2; PSO-3|
|Line of sight:||6 °|
|The diameter of the exit pupil, mm:||6|
|Removal of the exit pupil, mm:||68|
|Light diameter of a lens, mm:||24|
|Maximum resolution, ang / sec||12|
|Length, mm (with hood and eyecup)||375|
|Battery voltage, V:||1.5|
Sight device PSO-1
- Retractable hood. Protects the lens of the lens from falling on her rain, snow and direct sunlight when shooting against the sun in order to avoid unmasking sniper reflections.
- Upper handwheel. It is used to set the sight (for more details – see below).
- Housing Connects all the mechanical and optical parts of the sight.
- Rubber eyecup. It protects the eyepiece lenses from mechanical damage and contamination, and also serves for ease of aiming and correct fixation of the sniper’s eye.
- Cap with an emphasis. Element of the grid lighting device.
- Battery. As a power element, for PSO-1, a RC-63 type battery is used. Correct installation in the battery case: the central electrode of the battery is connected to the contact screw of the grid lighting device, and the side electrode shifted toward the case. In this case, the contact plate of the electrode is bent over the edge of the housing, then a cap is put on it.
- Bracket. Serves for attaching the sight to the weapon. On it is the stop, grooves, clamping screw and its handle.
- Light bulb. Designed to highlight the reticle.
- Tumbler. Element of the grid lighting device. It is used to turn on / off the light bulb.
- Lens cap. Designed to protect lenses from mechanical damage and pollution. It opens only after the sniper has taken his starting position and before the immediate start of the aiming / osnotra area.
- Index (index). Indicates the value of the installation of the sight and the scale of the lateral correction of the upper and side handwheels.
- Locking screw
- Side handwheel. Serves to introduce lateral corrections to the target.
- Emphasis Bracket element.
- Engine with a spring. Bracket element.
- Clamping screw. Bracket element.
Grid lighting device. Intended to illuminate the sight grid when shooting in the dark or twilight. It consists of a battery (electric current source), a battery for a battery with a contact screw, a cap with a stop and a spring, which serves to preload the battery to the screw, wires connecting the screw to which the central electrode of the battery is connected through the toggle switch and the toggle switch itself, which includes and turns off the light bulb.
Included in the complete set of sight equipment as an accessory. Designed to illuminate the aiming grid at a temperature of 2 ° C and below. consists of a housing for the battery (one), a cap with an emphasis (2) and shielded wires (3).
To prepare the winter lighting device for operation, a battery is inserted into its case, on which, in turn, a cap with an emphasis is put on, and a winter device cap is installed in its place. The case of the device with the battery installed can be carried in the pocket of the uniform of the sniper, and the wire is passed through the left sleeve of the uniform to avoid entanglement and hooking for foreign objects.
Purpose, design and principle of operation of the upper and side handwheels
As mentioned above, the upper handwheel is used to set the sight depending on the distance to the target. Side handwheel – for introducing lateral corrections to the target. Their device is almost identical, so that they will be considered comprehensively.
- Tightening nut.
- Retaining screws.
- Connecting screw
- Additional scale.
On the upper handwheel housing there is a scale of sight with divisions from 1 to 10, each division number means 100 meters, i.e. setting the index to division “5” means the distance to the target 500 meters after its definition (see below).
On the body of the side handwheel there is a scale of lateral corrections with graduations in both directions from 0 to 10, each division number corresponds to the value of one thousandth (denoted as 0-01).
On the upper part of the hull of both handwheels there is an additional scale, the price of divisions of which is 0.5 thousandth. This scale is used for alignment of sight when sighting guns.
Setting the values of the main scale of the upper handwheel to the division “3” is fixed through one division (1; 2; 3), with one click of the lock. From division “3” to division “10”, the installation is fixed every half-division, that is, two clicks of the lock occur per division.
All scale settings of the side handwheel (0-10) are fixed every half division.
The connecting screw connects the end nut to the carriage and, while rotating the nut or handwheel, moves the carriage to the reticle in the desired direction.
Optical part (system)
- Eyepiece. Serves for the visual examination of the object in an enlarged direct image. Constructively consists of three lenses, two of which are glued together.
- Carriage. Connects the upper handwheel to the reticle.
- Reversing system. Gives the image a straight position. Structurally consists of four lenses glued in pairs.
- Reticle sight. It is made on glass, fixed in the carriage (moving frame).
- Luminescent screen. Designed to detect IR (infrared) light sources. Structurally, it consists of a thin plate made of a special composition, laid between two glasses. It has a window with a light filter, as well as a check box: with a horizontal position of the flag (towards the light filter) – for recharging the screen and shooting under normal conditions, with a vertical position of the flag (towards the lens) – for shooting at targets that have detected themselves with IR radiation ( for example – laser sights) and for observation.
- Window with light filter. Serves to charge the luminescent screen.
- Lens. Designed to obtain an inverted reduced image of the observed object. Constructively consists of three lenses, two of which are glued together.
Riflescope PSO-1. Determining the distance to the target
- Scale side corrections. To the right and to the left of the square is designated 10, which corresponds to ten thousandths (0-10). The distance between two vertical lines of the scale corresponds to one thousandth (0-01). The mark of the square corresponds to two thousandths (0-02).
- The main square for shooting at a distance of 1000 meters.
- Additional squares for shooting at a distance of over 1000 meters.
Designed for shooting at a distance of 1100, 1200, and 1300 m (top-down). For this, the value of the upper handwheel is set at 10.
- Distance scale. Consists of a dotted and solid horizontal curve. It is designed for a target height of 1.7 m (average height of a person), the value of which is indicated below the horizontal line. A graduated scale is plotted above the curve with a dotted line, one point of which corresponds to a distance of 100 meters from the target. The scale values indicated by the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 correspond to the values of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 meters, respectively.
Determining the distance to the target
- On the ranging scale:
- On the scale of lateral corrections and angular values using the thousandth formula:
Example: Observed breast target. Target value (AT) = 0.5 m; angle (Have) = 0.01 = 1. Hence, the distance to the target is equal to D = 0.5 x 100/1 = 500 meters.
Normal (tabular) external shooting conditions:
- lack of wind
- air temperature + 15 ° С
- zero altitude
In case of significant deviations from normal shooting conditions, amendments are made to:
- cross wind
- air temperature (when firing at a distance of over 500 meters)
- when shooting above 2,000 meters above sea level
- moving target (lead)
|Distance, m||Derivation, cm||Thousands (horizontal correction sight)||Aiming point without corrections (SVD rifle)|
|400||four||0.1||the left (from the shooter) eye of the enemy|
|500||7||0.1||to the left side of the head between the eye and the ear|
|600||12||0.2||left edge of the opponent’s head|
|700||nineteen||0.2||over the center of the shoulder strap on the opponent’s shoulder|
|800||29||0.3||no corrections accurate shooting is not performed|
Spare parts and accessories for optical sniper PSO-1
- Optical sight cover is designed to protect the sight from external weather influences: rain, snow, moisture, as well as dust and dirt when it is mounted on the weapon.
- The light filter is put on the eyepiece with a decrease in ambient light and the appearance of smoke in the air.
- The purpose of the remaining parts and accessories is quite transparent and does not need explanations.
Also with the grid sight PSO-1 can be found in the video.
Optical sight PSO-1