There are many options for temporary shelters and shelters designed for extreme or emergency situations, when a person, in spite of his will, finds himself in nature without a tent, sleeping bag, etc. In the rain, in cold or strong wind. The simplest shelters can be made in just a few minutes.
Options and methods for the construction of simple shelters, awnings made of awning, raincoat, tarpaulin, tarpaulin, polyethylene.
The simplest shelters from awning, raincoat, tarpaulin, tarpaulin, polyethylene are made easily, quickly and with minimal effort, providing protection from wind, sun, rain or snow. They will save the warmth of your body, provide, albeit an imaginary, but a sense of security, and create a feeling of comfort that will raise your spirit and make you a little happier in a difficult situation. Before installing shelters, one must take into account the direction from where the wind blows, so that at some point it does not turn into a sail beating in the wind.
Still, ideally, the surface under the shelter should have a slight slope in order to allow the flow of water. Otherwise, so that in the event of rain, water does not flood under the canopy, around the shelters and shelters set up, a drainage groove with a depth and width of about 10-15 centimeters will have to be dug. If possible, then the sod or soil from this groove can be laid on the outer edges of the shelter canopy, pressing them to the ground, this will save from drafts.
Along the lower edges of the shelter canopy, cut or tear off the grass to ensure a more snug fit to the ground. If there are eyelets in the tent or tarpaulin, it is better to fasten the rope or paracord in them with the help of a piece of branch, as shown in the photo, this will distribute the tension force over a larger area and ensure the safety of the eyelet in case of strong gusts of wind. If a piece of polyethylene without eyelets is used as the material for the construction of shelters and shelters, then the attachment points on it are made using improvised means, for example, small cones or smooth pebbles.
Options for installing shelters on the example of an awning, tarpaulin or polyethylene with the same sides in length. The names of the shelters are given conditional.
1. Shelter Frame.
A rope or cord is stretched between two trees (supports), an awning (raincoat, tent, tarpaulin, polyethylene) rests on top and is fixed below the entire length at an angle of about 30 degrees. Strengths of such shelters: it holds well even heavy rain or snow, is stable in the wind. Weaknesses : there is no floor and side door valves, if the rope is loose, it will sag in the middle.
2. Shelter Umbrella.
An awning is fastened between four trees (supports) parallel to the ground using ropes or a cord tied to its corners. Strengths : provides maximum shelter and protection from sunlight. Weaknesses shelters: not suitable in cold weather, limitedly suitable in rain, it is necessary to put an additional support point in the middle to ensure water drainage, low chances of finding four reference points nearby.
3. Shelter Simple Canopy.
A rope is pulled between two trees (pillars). The tent (raincoat, tarpaulin, polyethylene) is attached with one side to it, and the second to the ground, from the windward side, along the entire length at an angle of about 30 degrees. Strengths such shelters: easy to install, quickly removable, provides adequate protection from wind, rain or sun. Weaknesses : no floor, front and side protection, if the rope is loose, it will sag in the middle.
4. Shelter Pipe.
A more advanced basic version No. 1 Frame with floor. The awning is stitched on one of the sides in any way possible, all angles are made the same if possible, at 60 degrees. Strengths : convenient shelter with a floor, protection against leakage of water from the sides. Weaknesses shelters: there are no side flaps, with a tent size of 3×3 meters or less, there may not be enough space for a person of large build, if the rope is stretched slightly, it will sag in the middle.
are attached to the tree (support) and to the ground at an angle, the bottom side to the wind. The awning lies diagonally, the lower sides are fastened in any convenient way and form a flooring. Strengths : holds the wind well. Weaknesses shelters: rain drops may fall inside from a high side, a not very overall shelter, may be short for tall people.
7. Shelter Canopy with a visor and floor.
Version of the basic version No. 3 Simple canopy. One third of the awning hangs in the form of an edge for protection against rain. The second forms the side wall, and the third flooring. Strengths such shelters: good protection from rain and wind. Weaknesses : there is no protection in front and on the sides, it requires more rope or cord, if the top rope is loose, it will sag in the middle, the front edge of the roof can bend in the rain draining water inside the shelter.
8. Shelter Triangle.
Most suitable for the construction of such a shelter is a square awning, which lies on the rope with its diagonal. The undersides are well fixed. The length and angle of the rope determine the total area and width of the shelter. Strengths : suitable for more than one person, holds rain well and light wind. Weaknesses of such shelters: there is no floor, if the wind intensifies or changes direction, then due to the large windage, the integrity of the shelter can be violated.
for semi-desert and desert terrain, in which there will be no natural supports (trees). Strengths : provides good sun protection, a good option for desert areas. Weaknesses shelters: there is no lateral protection, requires more rope or cord, due to the large windage, the integrity of the shelter can be broken during gusts of wind.
10. Shelter Canopy with a visor.
A similar in design, simplified version of option No. 7 Canopy with a visor and floor. Due to the lack of flooring provides more interior space. The height of the upper rope determines the angle between the wall and the ground. The smaller it is, the more resistant it is to wind. Strengths this type of shelter: good protection from rain and wind. Weaknesses : there is no protection in front and on the sides, it requires more rope or cord, if the top rope is loose, it will sag in the middle, the front edge of the roof can bend in the rain draining water inside the shelter.
11. Shelf Shelf Box.
Convenient, but difficult to build and time-consuming shelter. It requires at least four attachment points, a strong stand, and preferably two, and a good, uniform roof tension. Otherwise, it will bend in the rain or snow. One quarter of the tent during the construction of this shelter is not used, but is folded and mounted on one of the side walls. Strengths : good weather protection when installed correctly; it is convenient to raise and maintain a bonfire under it. Weaknesses such shelters: there is no flooring and side walls, a quarter of the tent is not used, it is difficult to install, requires more rope or cord, low chances of finding four reference points nearby.
12. Shelter Tent.
Convenient and comfortable, but requiring careful construction in the shelter. The ideal aspect ratio of the awning should be 1: 2. First, the tent is folded according to the scheme and the four lower corner attachment points are marked on it. Then they draw a square of the right size on the ground. Then the awning is lifted beyond the upper attachment point and suspended. Then they securely fix the angles of the future shelter on the ground along the marked square.
Two triangles partially form the floor. The final tension and adjustment is made by moving the upper mounting point. The lower corners of the triangles that serve as the entrance to this shelter are fixed separately, in place. Strengths of such shelters: if delivered and fixed correctly, then a very reliable and convenient shelter allows you to build and maintain a bonfire inside. Weaknesses : difficult to install, a certain awning size is required.
13. Shelter Tip.
Two pieces of rope or cord are attached at one end to the ground at one point, and the other, spreading them at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to suitable trees or supports. Awning is thrown diagonally from above. Then it is stretched and attached. If necessary, racks are installed under the entrance sides, and additional lateral guy wires are attached to them. Strengths : low profile holds the wind well, spacious enough shelter. Weaknesses of these shelters: no floor, the front valve only partially covers the inlet.
14. Shelter Barn.
Almost repeats option number 10 Canopy with a visor. But in this form it has a flat roof with two separate racks and a 90 degree back wall. Strengths of these shelters: a spacious and easy to build shelter. Weaknesses : not effective in rain due to a flat roof, and in wind, since the rear wall has a large windage, there is no floor and side walls for adequate protection from weather.
15. Shelter Sail.
Similar in concept to option No. 8 Triangle. An awning is thrown diagonally from above onto a rope stretched between two points. The lower ends of the awning are stretched attached to the ground. The lower the rope is pulled, the more shadow will be inside the shelter on a sunny day. Strengths : quick to build, good shelter in hot sunny weather, provides shade throughout the day. Weaknesses of such shelters: not effective in rain or wind, has no floor and side walls.
16. Shelter Arch.
Shelter with a flat roof and two straight parallel walls. Dimensions will depend on how high and far apart the ropes are tied. Alternatively, to ensure better rainfall, you can fasten one rope a little higher than the other and change the angle of one of the walls to give it greater wind resistance. Strengths these shelters: a good design for construction in confined spaces. Weaknesses : has no floor and side walls, low chances of finding four reference points nearby.
17. Shelter Pie.
Inverted version №15 Sail. Convenient in light weather, able to provide protection from wind and very little rain, while having a large flooring area. This will be especially true when spending the night on damp land. Awning folds diagonally. One of the lower corners on the bend is simultaneously attached to both the ground and the rope. The topmost corner is attached to the rope. The remaining corners of the flooring are attached to the ground. The height of the canopy depends on the height of the attachment point to the support (tree). Strengths such shelters: only one attachment point to the support, has a floor, protects from wind. Weaknesses : poor rain protection due to a triangular roof, no side walls.
Used materials from the American Survival Guide Magazine.