In many crisis situations, there will always be someone who takes a responsible position and leads the organization of life in the field camp and the development of rescue plans. If there was no governing structure in a group that got into an extreme situation, then an organizational committee should be established, individuals should be selected and appointed with a specific responsibility. Perhaps on a rotational basis, if the group is large and quick rescue is not to be expected.
Organization of life in a permanent or temporary field camp, layout, hygiene in a field camp.
It is necessary to combine individual knowledge and experience of each and take urgent steps to find out what skills everyone can apply in the common business of survival. The distribution of responsibilities in the field camp for such routine tasks as providing fuel and water, collecting edible plants, cooking, arranging and maintaining the toilet, and hunting, including catchwords, will become important..
lifeguards. If there are enough of you, do not go outside the camp alone at least in pairs.
If you are not in the desert, where daytime will have to be spent mostly in shelter from the sun, and early morning and evening will become the active time of the day, then your day will most likely be fully occupied. Evenings, if they are not busy hunting, can be very dreary. The evening gathering around the campfire in the field camp will help to create a ritual and give a sense of order and normal life. There will be an opportunity to discuss the events of the day, plans for tomorrow and future prospects. Music can be a great moral support. If there are no musical instruments, you can easily make simple drums or pipes and flutes, and somehow everyone can sing.
Improvised concerts, dances, word games, charades, quizzes and stories for everything there is a place, and among you there may be talents that can suit real performances. For more private leisure, any books will be invaluable; you can make figures for board games from pebbles or wood, using stones as boards. Even one person needs discipline and order. The established regime has a positive effect on morale and the exact same attention must be paid to the maintenance of the camp in proper condition. At first there can be so many urgent matters that a loner will not have time for leisure, but for a person when he is left alone, boredom is even more dangerous and specific goals for both practical and entertaining purposes should be set for every day..
Planning for a temporary or permanent field camp.
Set up camp into functional areas so that they do not interfere with each other and do not pollute the living section and kitchen. If your camp is located on the banks of a river or stream, identify specific sites for a particular activity and stick to it. Identify the place with drinking water where you will take the water from and ensure that no one bathes, doesn’t wash, doesn’t wash the dishes, or uses the stream in any other way. Downstream, select a place where you can wash and wash, and even lower a place for washing dishes.
Toilets and garbage cans in a field camp.
Toilets and garbage cans should be located at a considerable distance from the camp and preferably in the direction of prevailing winds in order to reduce the risk of flies, but not so far as to be uncomfortable to use them, so as not to tempt people not to reach them. Toilets should be dug below the camp on a slope and away from the source of drinking water to reduce the risk of contamination through groundwater as well..
If necessary, cut a path to them in the vegetation, so that it is more convenient to approach there. In no case do not send small and large needs near your source of drinking water. It is very important to make good toilets, even when people are alone. Separate toilets for both sexes in a group can help people feel more comfortable; maximum privacy should also be provided..
Even if you have a disinfectant, do not use it on the toilet. Lime or a disinfectant will kill beneficial bacteria that decompose the waste, and then they smell. After cleansing the intestines, cover the bowel movements with soil. Water a little, which will help the development of beneficial bacteria. Cover the toilet with some kind of cover against flies and do not forget to use it. Otherwise, flies crawling there will creep along your food, spreading infectious diseases in your field camp. If, after some time, the toilet smells, dig up a new one. Fill the old toilet, and burn the old structures and the lid.
Pit toilet in a field camp.
Dig a hole of the required length, about 1.5 meters deep and 50 cm wide. Add pit walls with logs, poles, logs, etc., or stones with earth to a comfortable height for the seat, leaving no gaps between them. Lay logs or logs on top, leaving only a hole for using the toilet, or several if we are many and need a public toilet. Seal the slots with wood ash; it will also deter flies at the same time. Make a lid from smaller timber to cover the hole, or use a large flat stone or a large sheet, pressing it with stones. Remember to close the hole after using the toilet..
Urinal installation in a field camp.
Dig a hole about 60 cm deep. Fill it three-quarters relatively with large stones, and the rest with earth, into which insert a cone rolled up from the bark in the shape of a funnel. Make the urinal close enough to the camp so that people are not too lazy to go to it.
Field Camp Incineration.
Garbage, after you are convinced of its uselessness, should be burned, and what can not be buried to bury. If possible, burn food waste and other rubbish at the stake. If there is too much debris to burn it at the campfire or at the camp site, arrange for incineration in the area with the toilet. If there is a large tin can, use it as an incinerator. Throw out unburned remains in the garbage pit..
Field Camp Order.
Do not handle prey in the camp. Draw blood, gut and skin in place of traps. This will attract game to the traps where you need it, and not to the camp. Keep food closed and above ground. If you store it on trees, be sure to protect it from animals living on trees or climbing on them. Close the lids and caps of vessels with water immediately after use. Keep equipment and spare clothing in your shelter. Do not leave them where they can get wet or burn. Take your place and keep things in order. Never leave a fire unattended.
Hygiene in the field camp. Field Soap Making.
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is an important factor in survival, so you should strictly follow the rules of hygiene, and not only personal, but also when planning a camp, and in daily routine. Washing with soap removes natural oils, which makes the skin less waterproof and more susceptible to microbes. In terms of survival, it will be a mistake to use soap too often.
However, soap is the most common antiseptic, better than others, such as iodine, which, along with microbes, destroys body tissues. It is ideal for rubbing their hands before providing first aid for injuries. Take care of his supplies for this. For the manufacture of soaps, two substances are needed. As the oil, you can use animal fat (including fish oil) or vegetable oil, but not mineral. Alkali can be obtained from ash generated by burning wood or algae.
Fill the ash with water. Strain and cook in oil. Keep on low heat until all excess liquid has boiled away and allow to cool. Such a soap will cleanse the skin, but it is not an antiseptic. It will become such if the horseradish root or pine resin is added during cooking. You’ll have to experiment to find the right ratio of ingredients. Start with more oil than alkali, as it will dry and irritate the skin..
Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.