A tourist bivouac is a vacation for the participants of a hike, a place of rests where they eat, sleep and prepare for the next journey, it is a fire, a fireplace, a shelter from bad weather. Depending on the duration of the bivouacs, they are divided into a small halt, lunch halt, overnight, day.
Organization of small and lunch breaks, lodging and nights during hiking trips.
The organization of camps or overnight is to choose the right place for them, to prepare the site well, put up a tent, make a fire and ensure the safety of the camp from the elemental forces of nature.
Choosing a place for small rests.
As a rule, a place is chosen on fairly flat and dry areas, in clearings, edges, or right on the side of a road or trail. It is advisable that there is a key or a clean stream nearby. In windy weather, the halt should be covered from wind gusts by a strip of forest, bushes, a hillock or coastal slope. However, where there are mosquitoes and midges, it is recommended to choose the windward areas of the relief for stopping. In winter, halt is good at sunlit places, and in summer or in the south in the shade.
Choosing a place for lunch breaks, overnight, days.
Searched more carefully. Usually it is chosen on the banks of a river, lake, and often depends on the presence of a flat area for tents and dry fuel for brushwood, felling, windbreak. Good winter fuel is needed at the site of a winter field overnight. The presence of a nearby source of drinking water is desirable, but in winter conditions it is not necessary, since water can be drowned out of snow.
points, a tourist camp should be camped upstream of the village, watering places and fords. It is recommended to choose places with convenient descents to the water, calm reaches and a sandy bottom without snags. For a lodging for the night, it is more convenient to place early in the sun. The eastern slopes of the hill, the eastern edge of the forest, the riverbank, etc. Here, dew on grass and tents dries faster. It is good when a halt or overnight is organized in the most picturesque places where you can fish nearby, pick mushrooms or berries.
In protected natural and forest park areas, a tourist camp can only be set up in designated areas. Holidays and lodging cannot be arranged where, due to the condition of the soil, plants or the presence of water runoff, tourist camps can contribute to erosion, for example, at the beginning of a ravine or its branches.
Safety requirements for places of rest and overnight.
It is not recommended to camp on flooded riverbanks, in channels of dried up streams or on low-lying islands. In the mountainous region, specific features of the relief and weather must be taken into account. In order to avoid rockfalls, avalanches, landslides, mudflows, do not settle down at the foot of high cliffs, under eaves, mobile screes, on drift cones, in avalanche hazardous corridors. In order not to expose yourself to the risk of damage by atmospheric electricity, with an approaching thunderstorm, you can not stop on ridges, hilltops, passes. In the forest, one should be careful with fire and not camp directly in the coniferous forest or in a dry bush. Rotten or chopped trees should not be near the chosen site, otherwise a sudden flurry or a lightning strike could knock them on tourists.
Organization of small halts on a camping trip.
Having found a suitable site and stopping tourists, the leader distributes responsibilities among the individual members of the group. Usually it is enough to instruct one of the tourists to distribute sandwiches, sour candies or vitamins, and another to go for drinking water. All the others, taking off their backpacks, settle down for 5-10 minutes on stumps, fallen trees or dry rises of the soil. Tired people are allowed to lie down on some litter and raise their legs up (for example, put them on a backpack). Useful to do a little workout..
Organization of small halt in winter conditions.
Before stopping at a halt, the group slows down so that the heated skiers can gradually cool down. After stopping, you should immediately put on something warm, such as a jacket or quilted jacket. If possible, it is advisable to give everyone a warmth out of a sip of hot tea, coffee or cocoa. It is recommended to hang the backpack on a tree branch, put on a stump cleared of snow, or, if they are absent, lower it on the back of your skis. You should not sit on the backpack, but if there are no products or items that can be crushed in it, an exception may be made in some cases. In cold weather, a small halt should be no longer than 5 minutes.
Organization of lunch breaks on a hiking trip.
When stopping for lunch, two people go to get water, one begins to light a fire, the other to the equipment of a campfire. The rest go for fuel. After water and firewood have been brought in and a fire has been kindled, those on duty remain near it, who ensure the maintenance of fire and cooking. Tourists who are free from duty are resting, swimming, playing sports, fishing, picking mushrooms and berries. In sunny weather, a lunch break can be used to dry clothes and equipment. In case of inclement weather, you should pre-select the site for the installation of tents, and fold all the backpacks in one place and cover with a cloak or film. Duration of a lunch break 2-4 hours.
Organization of winter lunch breaks.
Significantly shorter than summer. Its duration depends on the speed of making a fire and cooking hot food, usually consisting of tea or a few dishes. Stopping for lunch, you should, without taking off your backpacks and skis, first trample the snow on the camp site. Then the leader distributes the duties among the members of the group: who will dig a pit or make flooring for a fire, who will go for fuel, who will light a fire. The main thing in organizing a winter halt is the active participation of all tourists in this. This is the only way to conduct it quickly and prevent the cooling of the body in case of forced inactivity in the cold.
Organization of nights and nights in the field.
The organization of an overnight stay and a day is much like the organization of a lunch break. However, it requires the additional involvement of several tourists for the installation of tents and camp equipment. They make fuel for a fire, equip a campfire, clear the camp area, build benches, hangers, dryers from improvised material, dig a garbage pit, clear the descent to water if necessary, etc..
In winter, these tourists, depending on the specific conditions of travel and the equipment used, dig a pit for a tent, tamp a path from a tent to a fire, build a wind-shelter wall, etc. In winter nights using a camping stove, two or three tourists harvest small-format firewood (to maintain heat in the tent all night). Given that organizing an overnight stay in the summer takes up to two, and in the winter up to three hours, a stop should be made well before dark.
Field and night mode.
Proper treatment helps to ensure normal rest and sleep. Novice tourists often sit around the campfire well after midnight and obviously lack sleep. Therefore, the head announces in advance the time of general hang-up (usually at 23.00) and after it does not allow conversations and noise in the camp. For the night and for a day, a certain amount of time is allocated for checking and repairing personal equipment and clothing, for socially useful work and observing nature, and the remaining time for entertainment, physical exercises, sports games, training, fishing, picking mushrooms, berries, etc. The day should also be used for better acquaintance with the surrounding area, excursions and walks..
Collapse of a field tourist camp.
Group gatherings begin with the packing of backpacks. In winter or in rain, backpacks are packed in a tent. In clear and warm weather, all things are pulled out of the tent, and then the entrance and the window are opened wide so that it is easily blown and dried out. If the tent is frosty during the frosty night or is wet from the rain, it is dried by the fire. Non-transportable pegs and racks are pulled out of the ground and laid together with the remains of firewood near the fire. Camp constructions barriers, benches, tables do not break they can be useful to other tourists.
The remains of unnecessary food are neatly laid aside. This is a gift from tourists to forest animals. But the branches, moss, grass from the litter under the tents, as well as other garbage (scraps of paper, wood chips) are carefully collected from the camp site and burned, then they are raking and extinguishing the fire, filling it with water, throwing it with earth, snow, laying turf. Before leaving the halt, the leader builds a group and checks to see if everything is there, if any things are forgotten, the fire is carefully extinguished, and the place for the night or the night is tidied..
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Maslov A.G., Konstantinov Yu.S., Latchuk V.G..