The objects of the terrain survey from a helicopter are mainly routes planned for the movement of troops, new position areas, the formed areas of destruction and flooding.
Orientation during a helicopter site survey, map preparation, general and detailed orientation in flight.
Before the inspection from a helicopter, the area is preliminarily studied according to a topographic map scale of 1: 100 000 or 1: 200 000. Places requiring the most detailed examination are identified. Make a survey plan on a map.
etc.). In addition, linear landmarks (railways and highways, rivers, etc.) are set and raised on the map, limiting the area.
The height and speed of the helicopter is selected depending on the object of examination. In daylight, under favorable conditions of visibility, areas of destruction and flooding, new position areas and other large objects are successfully inspected from a helicopter from an altitude of 100-300 meters at a flight speed of 120-140 km / h. Terrain on dirt roads and off-road is usually set from a height of 25-50 meters. At a flight speed of 50-60 km / h.
To clarify the possibility of movement of various military equipment and vehicles through wetlands, as well as to determine the soil and the profile of the river bottom, its depth, flow velocity and the presence of fords, landing is necessary.
General and detailed orientation when examining the area from a helicopter.
When preparing a map for each segment of the route, the distance between the reference points, the flight time (based on the set speed) are determined and their values are signed on the map. The success of a helicopter terrain survey largely depends on skillful orientation in flight. Depending on the tasks performed using a helicopter, a general and detailed orientation is distinguished..
With a general orientation, it is enough to know the approximate location of the helicopter. In this case, the observation is carried forward and to the side. This makes it easier to map the map to the terrain. With a detailed orientation, the observation is mainly directly down, which provides a more accurate determination of the location of the helicopter.
In flight, the map is oriented (deployed so that the route line runs along the flight direction) and continuously compare it with the terrain. Following the linear landmarks and noting the passage of areal landmarks. When approaching the survey area, they usually conduct a general orientation. Over the survey area go to a detailed orientation.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.