Depending on the nature of the terrain, orientation is usually used on a map with a scale of 1: 100,000 or 1: 200,000. The main task of orientation in movement is to maintain a given or planned route on a map.
Orientation on the map in motion, gluing sheets and folding the map, raising the route, selecting landmarks, determining the length of the route and azimuths.
Orientation in motion is continuous. In order to constantly know your location on the map, which is determined visually by comparing the map with the terrain. To do this, pre-prepare a map, and on the road adhere to a certain order. Card preparation includes:
Climbing and exploring the route.
Selection of landmarks.
Determination of the length of the route and azimuths of individual directions.
If there are aerial photographs, you should establish the correspondence of the location map along the route and make the necessary additions to the map.
Gluing sheets and folding cards for orientation in motion.
Bonding of card sheets is performed in a specific order. The folding of the card is done with the accordion along the route so that the route is located in the direction of the elongated side of the field bag (tablet). And the excesses of the map were in places with simple orienting conditions.
Rise of a route on a map for orientation in movement.
The rise of the route is carried out by a brown line. Without closing the conditional road sign and conventional signs of other local objects, so as not to impair their readability. The line is usually drawn to the right (bottom) of the conventional road sign.
Selection of landmarks on the map for orientation in motion.
The selection of landmarks is carried out simultaneously with the rise of the route. Landmarks are designed to control route maintenance. They are planned mainly in places where it is especially important to make sure that the movement is correct (on bridges, crossings, forks and bends in roads, etc.). As a guideline, first of all, select terrain objects that are clearly visible from the route.
In the settled areas, settlements, bridges, streams crossing the road, crossings through railways, intersections of paved roads, etc. can serve as landmarks. Settlements should be chosen with some characteristic feature. Located on a hill, near a reservoir, etc..
This is especially important when many settlements are located along the route or their mass destruction is possible in the course of hostilities. Landmarks are surrounded by a circle of brown color and near them sign the distance in kilometers from the starting point.
Determining the length of the route.
The length of the route is determined by any of the available methods. Unlike the march plan, where distances are signed after 5 or 10 km, on a map designed for orientation in traffic, distances are signed at selected landmarks.
Determination of azimuths for orientation in motion.
Azimuths are determined only on sections of the route that are difficult to navigate. Off roads or on poorly run over roads, where there are almost no landmarks. Such sections of the route may be in the steppe, desert, tundra and forest areas.
In addition, the determination of azimuths is necessary in cases where there is doubt about the correct direction of movement. For example, when leaving the village on a dirt road, when there may be more roads on the terrain than shown on the map.
To determine the azimuths, draw straight lines between reference points. Directional angles are measured by a protractor, the obtained values are transferred to the magnetic azimuths and signed on a map near the corresponding lines.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.