Orienteering includes determining your location relative to the sides of the horizon and prominent terrain objects, landmarks, maintaining a given or selected direction of movement, and understanding the location of landmarks, lines, and other objects on the terrain.
Orienteering with a map, compass, clock, celestial bodies and local objects, according to various signs.
Orienteering in most cases can be done:
1. On the map.
2. Using a compass.
3. Using the watch.
4. According to the heavenly bodies.
5. For local subjects.
6. On various grounds.
Orienteering with a map.
On the map you can determine your location, choose the path of movement, taking into account the observance of camouflage and overcome possible obstacles, as well as pre-measure the azimuths for driving on impassable roads and in conditions of limited visibility. To navigate the map on the ground, you must first orient the map and determine your point of standing. The following methods are used to orient the map..
Orientation of a map on terrain lines.
In this case, you need to go on a road, a clearing, a riverbank or another line. Find it on the map and then rotate the map until the direction of the road (line) on the map matches the direction of the road (line) on the ground. Then check that the objects located to the right and left of the road (line) are on the ground from the same sides as on the map.
It is used mainly in terrain difficult to navigate (in the forest, in the desert, in the tundra), as well as in poor visibility. Under these conditions, the compass determines the direction to the north, and then the map is rotated (guided) by the upper side of the frame towards the north so that the vertical line of the grid of the map coincides with the longitudinal axis of the magnetic arrow of the compass.
The compass map can be oriented more accurately taking into account the declination of the magnetic needle. To do this, you need to additionally rotate it so that the northern end of the magnetic needle deviates from the stroke 0 degrees of the compass scale by the amount of the direction correction indicated in the lower left corner of this map sheet. It should be remembered that the compass can not be used near iron objects, military equipment and power lines, since they cause the deflection of the magnetic needle.
Determination by map of the point of standing on the ground.
It is easier to determine the point of your standing on the map when you are on the ground next to a landmark or local object) shown on the map. In this case, the location of the symbol will coincide with the standing point. If there are no such landmarks at the standing point on the ground, then it can be determined using one of the following methods.
Orienteering and determining a standing point from nearby local objects or terrain.
To do this, you need to orient the map and identify 1-2 local objects on it and, accordingly, on the terrain, determine your location on the ground visually with respect to these objects and visualize your standing point on the map as well.
Orienteering and determining a standing point by measuring distances.
Moving along the road, along a clearing in the forest or another line in the terrain indicated on the map, measure the distance traveled from the nearest landmark in a couple of steps or on the speedometer of the car. To determine your standing point, you just need to postpone the measured, traveled, scale distance on the map in the right direction.
Orienteering and determining the standing point by serifs on a lateral landmark.
When driving along a road, along a clearing, along a telegraph line, one can determine one’s location by local objects or landmarks located on the sides of the road. To do this, you need to orient the map in the direction of the road and identify any landmark on it and on the ground.
Then attach a ruler or pencil to the selected landmark on the map and without knocking down the orientation of the map, rotate the ruler around the symbol of the landmark until its direction coincides with the direction of the landmark. The place where the ruler crosses the road will be a standing point.
Orienteering and determining the standing point by a notch in two or three directions.
Off-road driving, when the standing point is not indicated on the map, it can be determined by a reverse notch in two or three directions. To do this, select 2-3 landmarks on the map and on the terrain. Then orient the map by compass and, similarly to the previous method, provide and draw along the ruler directions to each of the selected landmarks. The intersection of the drawn lines will be a standing point.
Orienteering without a map using a compass, a clock and the Sun.
This orientation is to determine the sides of the horizon, directions to the north, east, south, west, and its location in the area relative to the assigned or selected landmarks and is usually used in a limited area. When determining the sides of the horizon by the compass, it is given a horizontal position, the brake of the arrow is released. After the cessation of oscillations, its luminous end will indicate the direction to the north.
To determine the sides of the horizon by the Sun and the clock, you need to face the Sun. Put a clock showing local time so that the hour hand is pointing at the Sun. A line dividing the angle between the clockwise and the direction of the number 1 in winter time or 2 in daylight saving time (only for the territory of the CIS) in half will show the direction to the south. According to the North Star, which is always in the north, the sides of the horizon are determined as shown in the figure above.
Orientation by the moon and the clock.
On the moon and the clock are guided when the starry sky is poorly visible. On a full moon, the sides of the horizon can be determined by the moon using a clock in the same way as by the sun. If the moon is incomplete, arrives or decreases, then you need:
1. Divide the radius of the moon’s disk by eye into six equal parts, determine how many such parts are contained in the diameter of the visible crescent of the moon, and notice the time.
2. From this time, subtract if the Moon arrives, or add if the Moon decreases, as many parts as are contained in the diameter of the visible crescent of the Moon. In order not to make a mistake, when to take the difference, and when the amount, you can use the method shown in the figure below. The resulting amount or difference will show the hour when the Sun will be in the direction where the Moon is.
3. Direct to the moon the place on the watch dial that corresponds to the time obtained after adding or subtracting time. The bisector of the angle between the direction to the moon and for an hour (in winter time) or for two hours (in summer time) will show the direction to the south.
Orienteering and locating the horizon using local objects.
Identify the horizon on local objects quite inaccurate, and sometimes it is generally wrong. Therefore, it must necessarily be produced only in combination with other methods. The basis of orientation on local subjects is the knowledge of the following features.
The bark of most trees is coarser and darker on the north side, thinner and more elastic, birches are lighter on the south.
In pine, the secondary, brown, cracked bark on the north side of the trunk rises higher than on the southern.
On coniferous trees, resin accumulates more abundantly from the south side..
Annual rings on fresh tree stumps are densely located on the north side..
On the north side, trees, stones, wooden, tiled and slate roofs are covered earlier and more abundantly with lichens, fungi.
Anthills are located on the southern side of trees, stumps and bushes, in addition, the southern slope of the anthills is usually gentle, the northern steep.
Berries and fruits used to redden (turn yellow) on the south side.
In summer, the soil near large stones, buildings, trees and bushes is drier on the south side, which can be determined by touch.
In detached trees, the crowns are more magnificent and thicker on the south side.
Snow thaws faster on the southern slopes, as a result of thawing on the snow, nicks (spikes) are formed, directed to the south.
The altars of the Orthodox churches, chapels and Lutheran picks are facing east, and the main entrances are located on the western side.
The elevated end of the lower cross of the cross of the churches faces north.
Based on the book Textbook Sergeant Military Intelligence.