The most common form of crossing small rivers and other water obstacles is fording the river. The main condition for crossing the river is the choice of the location of the ford. External signs of ford: expansion of the river in its direct section, ripples on the surface of the water, reaches, shallows, rifts, islands, trails and roads going down to the river.
Overcoming rivers and water obstacles by ford, methods of ford crossing, external signs of ford.
The exception is flat rivers. Here, when choosing a ford, it is necessary to establish the absence of whirlpools, deep holes, silt, mud, driftwood, flooding of trees and other objects that, when carrying out a crossing, can cause serious complications.
, in shoes. Rollover should be able to swim well. The tourist who crossed the river first should be prepared to assist his comrades. If one of the participants is not very sure about overcoming the water barrier, he needs to be insured by allocating a more experienced participant to help him. On a difficult section of the river, in addition to the pole, the ferryman uses a safety rope. The first insurance is carried out by the main and auxiliary ropes, which are fastened on the chest side with a carbine to the chest harness. When moving, the safety ropes are at a certain angle relative to one other main upstream, auxiliary below.
Each rope is held by two tourists and, if necessary, issued. When the guide breaks, the main rope is not selected, but only held or slightly protruded. Pulling the fallen to the shore is carried out by an auxiliary rope. After the first tourist crosses, the main rope is fixed to a reliable item and pulled by the insurer at the level of the ferrymen crossing. Thus, the rope serves as a railing, with the help of which the safety of the further crossing is ensured. Movement is carried out by extra steps, while supporting with hands over taut rails, facing towards the current.
If there is a strong current at the crossing, before starting the movement, the tourist is attached to the railing (main rope) with a carbine or safety loop located on his chest harness (from the side of the chest). The last participant untie the rope and attaches to it. Auxiliary and main ropes are fixed with a carbine on the chest side. Leaning on a pole, a tourist crosses the river.
Crossing through complex rivers in pairs and ranks.
This method is as follows; two or three to five people, hugging tightly over their shoulders, move somewhat against the tide. The safety of such a crossing depends on the coordination of the movements of the ferrymen. At the moment when one takes a step, the other supports it. With the next movement, you need to find a comfortable place for the leg so that it does not slip. Movement is desirable to carry out by extra steps. To improve insurance, the first one in the line is supported by a pole. When crossing a circle, those crossing, hugging tightly over their shoulders, form a circle and move counterclockwise.
To wade the river, you can use another way of crossing the column, which is as follows. The group is lining up along the river, in the back of the head to each other. Ahead stands the strongest participant with a pole in his hands. Behind him is the second, not inferior in strength to the first. In the middle stand the less powerful and inexperienced members of the group. Tourists hold each other tightly with both hands. The column, at the command of the first, with steps, enters the water, facing the current. The main force of the pressure of water takes on the first. He relies heavily on a pole set forward upstream.
The second in the column holds the first by the belt, pushing it down, preventing the flow from overturning the leader, etc. Each one insures the one in front. The column slowly steps over the river. The leader leads the movement of the column. With this method of crossing, a clear interaction of the movements of all members of the group is required.
When crossing the river, the following basic safety rules must be observed.
When choosing a crossing point, it is necessary to take into account the approach to the river, the condition of the channel, the depth and strength of the current, the time of day and climatic conditions, the presence of the necessary special equipment, and it is also necessary to conduct reconnaissance with compulsory insurance.
Cross the river at a place chosen by intelligence. It’s forbidden to cross in other places themselves.
When crossing with the organization of rope handrails, move on the side of the handrail, downstream, with added steps.
For self-insurance, loops with grasping knots should not be used to attach to the railing only with the help of a carabiner, through the chest harness or loops from it.
When moving in a row, around, in a column, each other’s grip on the shoulders must be strong.
For insurance downstream, it is mandatory to set up interception posts.
Fording across the river at any time of the year must be carried out in clothes and shoes.