A large, shapeless piece of cloth or plastic film can be turned into a plague or wigwam. To build a plague, you need to have a lonely withered tree (of course, you can use a living tree, but only in a really emergency case) to break off all branches from below to the height of human growth and make several even circular notches, shorten the trunk to the required size.
Plague, wigwam and bivouac bag as the simplest shelters for victims of distress in extreme and emergency situations.
If there is no suitable tree, you can drive a stake of the same height pointed on one side into the ground. On top of the trimmed trunk, you need to put on a spare shoe or wrap a thick layer of clothing, cloth to cover sharp wood chips that can damage the film. Throw the film up, pull the ends in opposite directions and fix them with stones or pegs. Of course, such a plague turns out to be close, but if you sit down, pulling your legs to your chest, leaning your back against the trunk, then several people can fit inside. Due to its conical shape, the plague well resists strong winds, perfectly protects from rain.
, made of thin fabric or plastic film. Usually they are in the form of a large bag or a cone-shaped bag, installed with the help of a primitive branch frame or rope extensions. A tackle bag spread on the ground is lifted using a frame or an overhead guy. A person climbs in and bends the edges of the bag around the perimeter. In such a bivouac bag you can either sit or lie curled up.
An elongated bivy bag, convenient for a lying person, can be made of branches curved in an arc, stuck in the ground and covered with polyethylene on top, fixed at the edges with stones or poles. To protect the plastic puppy from damage, it is advisable to wrap the branches of the frame with some rags or tie them with fir spruce branches. In cold weather, due to the temperature difference inside and outside, due to high humidity, polyethylene can sweat very much. Therefore, people inside must ensure that the film does not come in contact with clothing. Here, a lot depends on the shape and location of the power frame, which gives the feed bag a given shape.
There are no complete designs for bivouac bags, since in each case the victims come up with their own design (form, method of attachment, etc.) that is most suitable for the specific conditions of the accident. It is much more convenient, and most importantly warm to spend the night in a bivouac bag, if you cram dry grass, foliage, reeds, fir spruce into it. In this case, it can be renamed into a bivouac sleeping bag. The improvised filler will not only help keep the heat inside, but also protect it from precipitation and water condensate deposited on the film.
By the way, not only plastic or other waterproof films, but also a simple fabric bag are quite suitable for a bivouac sleeping bag. The main thing is that the person himself and the insulation collected by him can fit in it. It is better to fill a large bivouac bag at first and only then climb into it with your legs, pushing apart and sealing the heat-keeping filler. It is even more convenient to put a small bag in a large bivouac bag, fill the space between them with the available warm material, and then climb into the small bag yourself.
When using a tight bivouac bag, do the opposite. That is, first climb into it yourself, and then shove it along the body with spruce branches, grass, etc., periodically rolling from the back to the stomach and back. Oddly enough, such forest debris with which a person surrounds himself is able to provide a warm night, even at significant subzero temperatures. In the same way, stuffing dry grass and foliage under clothes and imposing them on top of shoes can significantly increase their heat-saving properties.
In the most extreme case, you can spend the night in polyethylene alone, laying it under you, throwing it on top and bending the other end under the body. In this case, sleeping is permissible only on the side, spreading a hand under you. From above, you should try to throw on the body straightened clothes, a backpack, several spruce paws and so on. I had to go through several similar nights in the snow when the temperature outside fell below minus 10 degrees.
Honestly, I slept in fits and starts for several tens of minutes, because I woke up from a fraction of my own teeth. But still he slept. And he didn’t even catch a cold. With the complete absence of fabric materials, it is possible to build small shelter houses from poles, branches, turf and clay. To do this, you should connect a primitive frame from the branches and overlay it with possibly as large as possible sod strips, stitching them together with thin branches. In the absence of turf, branches close to each other can be coated with clay or even mud, which, when dried, form walls.
Based on the book The Great Encyclopedia of Survival in Extreme Situations.