Statistics claim that aviation is the safest mode of transport. On average, a little more than three thousand people die in aviation disasters throughout the year. For comparison, I’ll give all the same statistics of road accidents that take more than 30 thousand lives in a year in our country alone. Why then do we sigh with such relief when the plane, having completed its short flight, touches the landing gear of the concrete strip of the airfield? Probably because plane crashes, if they happen, leave the passengers of airliners with very little chance of escape.
Air crashes, actions during emergency landing and fire in an airplane.
But still leave? Yes. And the more prepared a person is for self-rescue in a plane crash, the higher they are. An example of this is the disaster that happened in 1974 with the B707 at the Samui Pai Pai Airport. Of the 102 passengers, only five survived. The commission of inquiry concluded that they survived only because they carefully read the memos and listened to the instructions of the flight attendant before the flight. During the accident, most of the fleeing passengers rushed to the front door, blocking their bodies with a narrow passage. Panic and stampede began, depriving them of hope for salvation.
Each aircraft kit includes collective and individual rescue equipment life rafts and life vests. Life jackets are stored in the seat of the aircraft seats, below.
The aircraft lifejacket (AFL) has two separate chambers (front and rear), each of which has a separate valve for blowing. A vest is put on over your head. For fastening on a body special belts are provided. To attract the attention of rescuers, a whistle and an emergency light. The weight of the vest is 950 grams, positive buoyancy 15 kilograms. To provide medical care on board the aircraft there is a first aid kit. Flight attendants and crew members trained in first aid.
Actions during depressurization of the aircraft in the air and decompression.
Air crashes at an altitude of over seven thousand meters are often accompanied by decompression. Initially, passengers hear a deafening roar, characteristic of a massive leak from the cabin. The surrounding space is filled with dust and fog, which causes a sharp drop in visibility. Some loose objects and things can fly around the cabin. All the air there is drawn very quickly from the lungs, which cannot be held by force, no matter how you strain your chest. At the same time, the eardrums are overloaded, which is accompanied by pain and noise in the ears, intestines, where the internal gases expand, causing sharp pains. After a few seconds, a person loses consciousness from suffocation.
The only way not to lose consciousness when the aircraft is depressurized is to immediately use the oxygen mask, which is usually stored in the back of the seat in front of the seat, putting it on your face. It is putting on, and not pressing to the mouth, that it is enough for a short moment to lose consciousness, which can happen with oxygen replenishment, so that it falls out of a weakened hand. Until you put on the mask, you can’t try to help other people. Even if it is your beloved or your child. No matter how blasphemous this sounds, but the first concern should be about your health. What is the use if you first rush to them and die before you can help. First save yourself, then, while maintaining consciousness and capacity, you can help others.
Fasten the straps immediately after attaching the mask. The first thing that the crew will do is to direct the plane, which has lost its tightness, down, why you can be thrown out of the seat. The safest places in accidents related to emergency landing are located closer to the rear of the fuselage, but not in the tail itself. With the explosion and collapse of the aircraft in the air, of course, there are no safe places. All these places fall from the same height and the same acceleration. Nevertheless, even in such a hopeless situation as a free fall from a height of several kilometers, people manage to survive.
Boarding a plane, for safety reasons.
Learn memos, listen to crew instructions.
Fasten the belt, fitting it under the figure.
When depressurizing an aircraft, immediately put on an oxygen mask to help neighbors do this.
In case of emergency landing, remove earrings, glasses and throw away other sharp and breakable objects.
Take a safety pose, bow your head, rest your elbows and knees in the front seat, put soft things under your stomach and chest.
When crushing at the exit, use the emergency exit.
It is impossible.
Cluttering the top shelves with heavy things
To unfasten belts, to get up to the team.
Helping others before putting on an oxygen mask.
Actions in case of emergency landing in the event of a plane crash.
After the crash and emergency landing, the surviving passengers should follow the instructions of the crew, who is trained to operate in such extreme conditions. But even before that, without waiting for a separate invitation, we must run away from the plane that made the emergency landing, so as not to fall under a possible explosion, lie down on the ground for some kind of obstacle and cover your head with your hands. And do not get up to the crew. Or until the aircraft cools down and the fuel spilled on the ground evaporates.
After that, passengers, unless another team follows, should get together, take the wounded to a safe distance from the plane crash and provide them with first aid (first, people with severe arterial and venous bleeding and airways clogged with foreign objects, then with fractures, wounds and other injuries), to separate the dead from the bulk of the people, to examine the wreckage of the aircraft and the surrounding area in order to find objects useful for survival, to build a temporary, protective wind and rain shelter.
These are priority actions, until the completion of which it is impractical to engage in other activities. It is only then that you can analyze the place where you are located for topographic dangers and the convenience of your stay and try to find a safer place. In no case do not go far from the wreckage of the aircraft, unless this is caused by real necessity. The first thing the rescuers will do is go along the line of the route of the missing airliner. Thanks to the scattered debris that is clearly distinguishable from the air and damage to the natural look of the area, they will quickly find it, but if you went to distant forests and scattered in two, three in all directions, you still have to collect.
Any search for places suitable for survival should be carried out only in the daytime and only in pairs or triples. Single walking is unacceptable. While the scouts are searching, everyone else should be as warm as possible and rekindle theoster. Fire, in addition to heat, is important as a factor of moral support. The sight of fire always soothes and inspires hope. In addition, the bonfire makes it easier to find the place of the crash, as it is visible from the air for ten kilometers or more. When allocating duties and work, it should be borne in mind that the most attention to themselves is required by injured and injured.
Despite their seeming insecurity, children are physically very hardy (remember, they’re preschool children who, in severe frost, laughter cramming snow into each other’s neck and then manage not to get sick! Yes, an adult would have died in their place.), But they are weak in spirit, so they need support. Old people, on the contrary, are physically weak, but this is more than compensated by their life experience and moral endurance. Women are just the same model of endurance and patience, but it is important for them to participate in their fate of the stronger sex, and most importantly rational leadership.
In situations of a plane crash when the crew died, it is important that a leader stand out from among the bewildered passengers. He must inspire confidence with all his appearance and behavior, give orders without a note of doubt in his voice, even if he does not know what to do in the next minute. Anarchy is much worse than the most short-sighted commander’s command. With self-promotion to a leadership position in extreme accident conditions, problems usually do not arise. Perplexed people will only be glad that someone will take responsibility for their lives. To avoid possible mistakes, the commander should rely on the advice of the most experienced of the saved people.
Actions in case of fire in an airplane.
The next most dangerous type of plane crash should be recognized as a fire. For obvious reasons, light fuel tanks and tens of tons of combustibles enclosed in them contribute little to fire safety. No wonder every fifth aviation accident is followed by a subsequent fire. And that is why it is so important to follow flight instructions that categorically prohibit the transport of flammable combustible and explosive substances in airplanes. Air fire regulations are more stringent than ground standards. It is understandable in the cabin of an airplane burning at an altitude of 10 thousand meters, the stop crane cannot be pulled and you cannot jump out the window. In addition, an additional provocateur of ignition here is the rarefaction of the atmosphere caused by altitude, significantly enhancing the evaporation of volatile liquids.
In case of a fire in an airplane, it is necessary to quickly get rid of combustible and melting synthetic clothing that is melted under the influence of fire. For example, women from tights. But outerwear from poorly burning natural materials, on the contrary, is worn to protect against the heat of the flame. For the same purpose and to protect your feet from possible fragments, wear shoes. Necessarily non-combustible hats. If there is, throw a blanket or blanket on top. Attempts to extinguish a fire using on-board fire fighting equipment (the location of which is better to know in advance) are not prohibited.
The respiratory tract should be protected from smoke with rags soaked in water, milk, juice, urine. With severe smoke, it is better to move around on all fours near the floor. If the passage is blocked, crawl over the lowered backs of the airplane seats. Do not open emergency hatches if smoke and fire are visible behind them. And yet, in the course of all these actions, we must not forget that everything is not so bad. That, according to statistics, out of a hundred people who were victims of a secondary fire that broke out after a forced landing, a fire, seventy, no matter what, survive. Good chances? Well, then everything will be fine!
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.