The main specificity of search expeditions of any orientation is the presence of a stationary camp, located, as a rule, not far from the place of work. Therefore, at first glance it might seem that for search engines, in contrast to classical tourists, the organization of pedestrian crossings and movement around the area are of secondary importance.
Planning and organizing trekking and terrain trekking.
This is only partly true when the expedition is working on an already defined and equipped place. The nature of the work rigidly ties them to a given point. For example, during archaeological excavations, and the task of achieving it is solved with the use of vehicles. But life does not always work out so well. Because the place of interest must first be found, and at the same time, search intelligence can reel on its feet more than a dozen transitions in a variety of conditions.
And since amateur groups that do not have a rich sponsor, as a rule, have problems with transport, the main team often has to make quite long walks in order to reach the area of upcoming work. Moreover, with the load, the equipment, in that case, also needs to be carried on itself. In addition, already in the process of work, it may be necessary to send intelligence to a new location. For example, to check the information received from the local population.
Before going on a route, especially on a long one, each participant must carefully adjust the equipment, make sure its reliability and performance. Even if you cherished and cherished it all the off season, do not be too lazy to check it again. It is better to make the necessary minor repairs in advance in a calm environment than to drive the horses in a short halt later.
Nevertheless, the presence of at least one repair kit per group is mandatory. You never know what can happen. Particular attention should be paid to the correct placement of the backpack, fitting its suspension system, as well as the convenience of shoes. If the boots squeeze the foot like a Spanish boot or, on the contrary, sit too loose, the backpack hangs down to the softest point, and the blade of a sapper shovel rests in the back, you can take a word for it, you will not go far.
Organization of pedestrian crossings.
After the start of movement, the first halt lasting 5-10 minutes is advisable to do in about half an hour. During this halt, participants eliminate identified shortcomings in fitting equipment. The subsequent rhythm of movement is set depending on the goals and objectives of the route, the availability of time and the degree of preparedness of the group. Tourists usually practice 5-10 minute stops after 30-50 minutes of movement. In military intelligence, when driving over medium-rugged terrain, halts lasting 10 minutes are assigned every 1.5-2 hours. When overcoming a slope with a steepness of 15-25 degrees after 50 minutes, and on steeper slopes and more often.
The halts are intended for a short rest, departure of natural necessities, clarifying the location, determining the order of further movement, caring for clothes, shoes and equipment, if necessary, for adjusting the route. Halts should not be neglected, even if at the moment you are all vigorous, cheerful and feel the strength to go another hundred kilometers without stopping.
The practice of extreme hikes over a relatively short distance of 30-50 kilometers shows that a group that suddenly breaks ahead at the start almost completely dies by the middle of the route. He comes to the finish line among the latter and, to put it mildly, not in the most efficient state. And the group whose commander competently combines periods of heavy traffic and rest on the route passes the route faster than anyone.
And even more unacceptable, for the sake of speed, to refuse a long break for a meal. Of course, if the goal of your transition is not, for example, avoiding an impending forest fire. The average speed of a pedestrian in a flat terrain with solid soil is 4-5 km / h without a load, 3-4 km / h with a load. When moving through a forested area without roads, with a dense river network and the presence of swamps, taking into account the time to search fords, guiding crossings and exploring the route, it will be without a load of 2-2.5 km / h, with a load of 1.5-2 km / h.
In winter, the speed of movement without special equipment (skis, snowshoes) sharply decreases due to snow cover. When driving over rough terrain, a decrease in speed should be taken into account, depending on the steepness of the overcoming slope. You may notice that on a slope with steepness greater than about 25 degrees, the ascent rate exceeds the descent speed. This is mainly due to the fact that in this case, on the descent, the load on the calf muscles increases sharply and legs quickly become tired.
There are also a number of reasons why the descent in the mountains is almost always more difficult and dangerous than the ascent, but their consideration is beyond the scope of this material. Those interested can read them in detail in the book of E.A. Pleshanova I + Nature or special literature on mountaineering. You should move on the march in the usual manner, without straining unnecessarily unless absolutely necessary. Breathing should be uniform and rhythmic, inhaling and exhaling deep, full. The magnitude of the load can be approximately controlled by the heart rate.
A normal exercise pulse should not exceed 180 beats per minute minus your age. To determine the maximum allowable load pulse, the age should be subtracted from 220. It is desirable to change the rhythm of movement smoothly, gradually gaining speed at the beginning of the transition and dropping it closer to the halt. It’s harmful to sing along the way and it’s undesirable to talk a lot, especially if you’re already tired, it slows down your breath and increases fatigue even more. I’ll silently say nothing about smoking on the march here, let every smoker determine for himself.
It is advisable to enter the route in the summer as early as possible in order to manage to overcome the maximum distance before the astronomical noon of the moment of the highest height of the Sun above the horizon. The famous Russian and Soviet writer and explorer of the Far East Vladimir Klavdievich Arsenyev usually started the route at 7 o’clock in the morning, made a big halt from 12 to 13, and stopped for the night at 16-17. At the same time, he managed to pass up to 25-30 kilometers per day. But on difficult multi-day routes, he did not recommend making large transitions in the early days, the human body should gradually adapt to the new stress regime.
If your expedition works in the steppe region, then it is better to go on a route even at 4-5 in the morning, and if possible avoid daily crossings under a scorching luminary. In the desert, moving during the day is simply dangerous. All transitions are carried out only at night. The movement is usually carried out by a column. The most powerful and trained participants are guiding and closing..
When setting the pace, the commander and guide should be guided by the capabilities of the less trained and those who carry the heaviest load. If at the same time there are fast-moving people in the group, whose speed seems too slow, then, if circumstances permit, they should be sent forward, let them scout the road or prepare a place for the main train to arrive.
Based on materials from the book Stalker Handbook. Alphabet of survival.