An increased danger to a person, if he, of course, does not live in the center of an anhydrous sandy desert, is represented by water bodies: rivers, lakes, ponds, quarries and others. And even construction pits and trenches filled with water. Most often, accidents on the water are associated with swimming in random places not suitable for this, crossing on ice through frozen ponds, boating and other boats.
Bodies of water, rules of conduct on water, assistance to a drowning man, safety measures when swimming in ponds.
Each year, the country’s ponds take the lives of more than 10,000 people. And for reasons beyond their control, maybe hundreds are drowning. The rest of their own stupidity, violating basic safety rules. The main one of which says: without knowing the ford, do not pop into the water! Well, why did you start swimming here? Hot? Well, yes, in the morgue, where you strive so much, it will be cooler.
organism and fatigue of the same muscle groups (for example, when swimming only breaststroke). Most often cramps the muscles of the legs and toes. Sudden movements, excessive muscle tension increase the likelihood of seizures. Therefore, while in the water for a long time, try to change swimming styles more often and do not try to swim quickly so as not to overload the muscles.
With cramps of the fingers, they should be spread with the other hand and the muscles relaxed. Some sources recommend clenching your fist quickly and violently, making a sharp swinging motion with your hand, and unclenching your fist. May be. But personally, this advice seems unconvincing to me. In case of leg cramp, it is necessary, for a moment, plunging into the water and straightening the leg, pull the foot on the thumb strongly. There are other options for first anticonvulsant care. For example, pinch, bite or prick the affected muscle with a needle several times.
If all of the above methods did not help, I recommend breathing in more air, taking a pose of the float and very calmly and very slowly straighten your leg with your hands. Did not work out? Take air again and again. After all, you cannot drown in this position. And that means you have time. But if you panic, then this cramp can drag you to the bottom. When rendering self-help, it is necessary to avoid a sharp stress of other muscle groups in order to protect yourself from extensive cramps in the whole body.
When diving into bodies of water from towers and steep banks fraught with a blow to the bottom, and especially when diving drunk, people sometimes lose their orientation in the water. That is, they cease to understand where the top is, where the bottom is, and, trying to escape, they are raking closer to the bottom. In this case, you should freeze for a moment to feel the movement of your body. Immersion or (if air is left in your lungs) ascent. It’s even easier to let out a few air bubbles from your mouth, see where they rise, and follow them.
First aid to a drowning man.
When assisting a drowning person, you should quickly look around in search of some kind of watercraft (boat, pedalo, surfboard, car camera, air mattress). If they are absent, one must try to find some suitable floating object to remove the inflatable toy from the nearest child, take the ball, pour soda from a plastic bottle, grab a rubber boot, which, turned upside down, holds perfectly on the water, inflate two three stuck into each other with air plastic bag.
Additional volumes of air are very desirable, since the drowned man will certainly try to drag you to the bottom. In the absence of suitable watercraft, the three of us should sail to the drowned person together, having previously discarded shoes and interfering clothing. And to swim quickly, but not in a hurry, so that there are forces left to provide assistance. People left on shore should, without wasting time, call an ambulance. If they didn’t think of it themselves, order them to do it..
If, in order to get closer to the drowning person, you use a boat or it sinks near the shore, you can use a lifebuoy or throwing ends to save it. Ideally, the rescue end of Alexandrov, which is in service with rescuers.
It consists of a 30 meter long line (along a simple rope) ending in a loop, on the sides of which two foam or wooden floats are fixed, and at the end a load weighing 250 300 g. Usually this is a cloth bag filled with sand or small crumbs of cork. You, with a good swing, throw the load in the direction of the victim, he puts a loop over his head under his hands. After which it only remains to tow to the boat or shore, chest or back forward. In the absence of industrial cast ends, you can use any eye catch rope, for example, taken from an anchor at some close fisherman.
If there is no boat, you will have to assist, as they say, in contact. Why, approaching the scene of the accident by several meters, it is necessary to explain in several strong terms that the drowned man should not clutch at you, and gently hold your shoulder with one hand and, actively flapping his legs, help you swim. If persuasion does not help, you must use force. Sail back and grab the drowning man by the hair or grab his left arm around his neck, raise his face above the water and drag him ashore. Some memos allow you to stun or slightly strangle a drowning man, so that he does not interfere with his rescue. Well, then, and stun. Then he will only thank you for that..
If the drowning man managed to grab you by the hands, neck or clothes and pulled to the bottom, do not be shy, beat him more painfully to restore your mind, or, better, inhale more air and immerse yourself several meters in water. The instinct of self-preservation will make him let you go. If you are late and the drowned man sank, first remember the place where you last saw his head. Why pay attention to the landmarks on the shore behind and in front of you, And start diving. If the water is clear with open eyes. If cloudy to the touch, checking the bottom.
After one of two unsuccessful dives it is impossible to stop searches. A person can be brought back to life after a five-minute stay in water. And in cold water and in twenty, thirty and even more minutes! So look. Look for it! Immediately after you have dragged the victim out of the water onto the shore (or even into the boat), begin his recovery. Open your mouth. If there is sand, silt, tina, turn your head to the side and clean your mouth with your finger.
Then bend the victim through his knee so that the head is below the level of the stomach, and several times press hard from above to remove water from the lungs. And keep pushing while she comes out. Then lay the victim on a hard surface, unfasten his belt and buttons on his clothes and begin resuscitation: artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. They must be continued until the arrival of the ambulance. Even if she arrives only after an hour.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.