FIM-92 Stinger (English FIM-92 Stinger – Sting) – this man-portable air defense missile system (MANPADS) American production. Its main purpose is to defeat low-flying aerial objects: helicopters, airplanes and UAVs.
Development MANPADS “Stinger” led by General Dynamics. It was created as a replacement for MANPADS FIM-43 Redeye. The first batch of 260 units. anti-aircraft missile systems were put into trial operation in mid-1979. After that, the manufacturer ordered another batch of 2,250 units. for the american army.
“Stingers” adopted in 1981, they became the most common MANPADS, more than twenty states.
A total of three modifications were created. “Stinger”:
- Basic (“Stinger”),
- “Stinger” -RMP (Reprogrammable Microprocessor),
- Stinger -POST (Passive Optical Seeking Technology).
The target and firing range. (GOS), which are used on anti-aircraft missiles FIM-92 (modifications A, B, C). Currently, Raytheon makes modifications: FIM-92D, FIM-92E Block I and II. GOS sensitivity as well as immunity to interference.
Device and TTH PZRK “Stinger”
GOS POST, which is used on Missiles (Anti-aircraft missile – approx. Last day club) FIM-92B, It operates in two wavelength ranges: ultraviolet (CC) and infrared (IR). If in rocket FIM-92A The GOS POST uses a rasterless target coordinator. UV and IR radiation detectors It can be carried out in the IR range.
Production Zur FIM-92B with gosh POST launched in 1983. However, in 1985, General Dynamics Zur FIM-92C, therefore, declined slightly. He was a HSM POST-RMP, The Stinger -RMP contains removable memory blocks with typical programs. Recent improvements MANPADS included rocket equipment FIM-92C lithium battery ring, as well as an upgraded roll-angle sensor.
The following main elements can be distinguished MANPADS Stinger:
- Transport and launch container (TPK) with missiles;
- Optical sight;
- Argon and electric batteries;
- Also installed equipment “friend-alien” AN / PPX-1 with electronic carrier, which is attached to the belt arrow.
On rockets FIM-92E Block i Dual-band interference-free rosette homing heads (GOS) are installed, which operate in the UV and IR ranges. In addition, warheads high-explosive fragmentation weighing three kilograms. Their flight range is 8 kilometers, and the speed M = 2.2 V rocket FIM-92E Block II An all-view of the IR detector array is located.
In the production of missiles used aerodynamic scheme “duck”. There are four aerodynamic patterns that can be seen. There is a tendency for the rocket around this longitudinal axis to be rooted around the longitudinal axis. Rotate provide inclined nozzle starter relative to the body. There is a possibility that there will be a response from the TLC, which is also located The control of rudders has been reduced.
The rocket is propelled by the Atlantic Research Mk27 solid propellant dual-mode cruise engine, providing acceleration to the target. This engine starts approximately 8 meters.
Weight of combat equipment Missiles It is not a hit. It’s a hit. .
To accommodate Missiles A hermetic cylindrical TPK from TPK, which is filled with an inert gas, is used. The container has two lids, which are destroyed at launch. Do you need to take care of this? It is a container for storage for ten years.
The locks are used to attach it. In the case of the rocket system, it is necessary to use the plug connector. The argon is chocked. It is a plug connector for the “friend or foe” system.
There is a neutral and two working positions. The power supply units are activated. Electricity and liquid argon spins Air defense system to launch. In the case of the electric motor for 19 seconds. The rocket’s starting engine
In the course of the battle of the airspace. The operator puts MANPADS on the shoulder, starting guidance on the selected target. Seems to be picked up by the trainer. After that, by pressing the button, the gyroscope is turned on. In addition, before the arrow, you must enter the lead angles.
It is true that the battery has been re-injected by the battery. Then the squib, starting the starting engine, is switched on.
MANPADS “Stinger” has the following tactical and technical characteristics:
- Affected area:
- Range – 500-4750 m
- Height – 3500 m
As a rule, calculations MANPADS during combat, perform tasks. The fire of calculation is governed by its commander. It is possible, as well as using commands that the commander transmits. The calculation of the fire The calculation launches the rocket.
For the operations instructions for combat. MANPADS. For example, it was used for a single jet aircraft, a “two launch-observation-aircraft”. In this case, both the shooter and the commander of the crew simultaneously shoot at the target. The assumption of the “launch-new-target-launch” method. There is no need for a commander to follow up. Fire lead to complete consumption of ammunition.
There are no limits on how much you can do.
It is worth noting that it will be possible to move.
Service record of Stinger MANPADS
First baptism of fire MANPADS “Stinger” Passed during the British-Argentine conflict in 1982, the cause of which became the Falkland Islands.
With help MANPADS Provided for a flight of the Argentine army. According to the British military, they threw off the attack. At the same time, it was fired at the Pukar turboprop attack aircraft.
But the real “glory” of this MANPADS received after the attack. Since the early 80s, the Mujahideen have used American systems “Red Eye”, Soviet Strela-2, as well as british rockets Bloupipe.
It is also worth noting that until the mid-80s with MANPADS No more than 10% of the contingent were shot down. The most effective rocket “Strela-2m”. She surpassed all competitors in speed, maneuverability and power of the warhead. For example, the American rocket “Red Eye” There was no contact between the helicopter or the aircraft. In any case, successful launches occurred quite regularly. However, the probability of hitting was almost 30% lower than that of the Soviet “Arrows”.
The Mi-24 and the Mi-8. And on the piston Mi-4, they didn’t fall away. Theoretically, the British MANPADS “Bloupayp” there were much more opportunities.
It was an all-view of a helicopter-up to five kilometers. It was three kilograms, which ensured acceptable power. But there wasn’t any experience. In addition, the whole complex weighed more than twenty kilograms, which also have prevented its wide distribution.
The situation changed dramatically “Stinger”.
A small 70-mm rocket was completely apt, and the guidance was completely passive and autonomous. The maximum speed reached values in 2M. In one week of use, four Su-25s were shot down with their help. It was a warhead that he could not save it.
During the first two weeks of fighting using MANPADS “Stinger” in 1987, three Su-25s were destroyed. Two pilots died. At the end of 1987, the aircraft of the eight aircraft. It was not effective against the Mi-24. Once upon a time helicopter “Stinger”, the engine For protection of helicopters, shielded exhaust devices were used, Also called l-166V-11E. It took a false takeover of the GOS target. MANPADS.
But y “Stingers” there were also weaknesses, which were attributed to pluses. This is a list of radio pilots that have been detected by the Su-25 pilots. The aircraft couldn’t have been scrambling from the front.
After start using MANPADS “Stinger” It is necessary to ensure that it is not a problem. It has been decided that MANPADS. Very often Mujahideen didn’t dare to use MANPADS, aware of the inevitable retaliation from these aircraft.
It is worth noting that the Il-28s, the hopelessly outdated Afghan Air Force bombers, became the most “unbreakable” aircraft. This was largely due to the cannons installed at the stern. MANPADS.
CIA and Pentagon armed Mujahideen with complexes “Stinger”, pursuing a number of goals. One of them is testing new MANPADS in real combat. Corresponding to hundreds of American helicopters and airplanes. However, the USSR helped to control the international community.
Official Russian media support the view that subsequently the Afghan MANPADS used during the “counter-terrorist operation”. However, this could not be true for some reason.
If you need to use it, it can be stored for a couple of years. And provide qualified service.
Most “Stingers” outbid in the early 90s Iran, According to the Iranian authorities, “Stinger”.
In the early 1990s, units were taken from the territory of Chechnya, and they remained. Therefore a need for “Stingerah” did not have.
During the Second Chechen campaign, militants used MANPADS different types. Mostly these were complexes “Needle” and “Arrow”. Sometimes met and “Stingers”, who came to Chechnya from Georgia.
It was not a single case of Stinger MANPADS.
In the late 80s “Stingers” used by the soldiers of the Foreign French Legion. With their help, they fired on Libyan war machines. But there are no reliable details in the “open sources”.
Currently MANPADS “Stinger” Become one of the most effective Hellfilter Aspic, Avenger and others. In addition, they are used in combat helicopters as a weapon of self-defense against aerial targets.
Portable anti-aircraft missile system FIM-92 “Stinger”