Fire and knowing where to start building a fire is vital in a survival situation, it can become the boundary between life and death. Fire gives heat, scares away dangerous animals, and its smoke annoying insects. With it, you can give distress signals, boil water, cook and preserve food, dry clothes, create comfort and improve morale.
Fire not only cooks your food, it makes it possible to prolong its action, since warming it saves the produced calories, which are spent on creating body heat. Fire is used to heat metal tools, to sharpen sticks and to burn clay products. You must learn to light a fire anywhere and in any environment. It is not enough to know all methods of producing fire; you must be able to use them freely.
Preparation for the production and cultivation of fire, a fire for the fire, tinder, kindling and incendiary sticks.
In preparation for the production and production of fire, it is very useful to always remember Triangle of fire. Its three sides represent air, heat and fuel. If either side is removed, the triangle will fall apart and the fire will go out. When lighting a fire, be sure to provide adequate ventilation, have the required amount of fuel and a good enough source of fire to set it on fire. In order for the flame to burn, a certain temperature must be maintained, so that a constant reaction between air and fuel occurs.
shelter under the branches, do not light a fire at the base of a tree or stump. Remove leaves, twigs, twigs, moss and dry grass in a circle with a diameter of at least 2 meters and clean everything to the very surface of the earth. If the ground is damp or covered with snow, then preparation for a fire must be carried out on some platform. Make it from a series of raw green logs or logs, covering them with a layer of earth or stones. If the land is swampy or covered with deep snow, you need a raised platform.
Bonfire on the platform.
Such a bonfire consists of a raised platform made of raw wood. Four racks hold the crossbars on their ruins. A row of raw logs is laid across the crossbeams, which is covered with a layer of earth. Plant fire on this layer of earth. Use the crossbar on the upper forks of diagonally arranged racks to hang the pot.
If the wind is very strong, dig a hole in the ground and light a fire there. For windy conditions, when preparing for a fire, it is also good to stone the place for fire to keep heat and save fuel. Use them as supports for utensils in cooking. The heat from them, as well as from the fire, will heat, and the stones themselves can be used to warm the berth.
Do not place wet or porous stones near the fire, especially those that have been in the water for a long time, they will explode when heated. For this purpose, do not use shale and other soft rocks of the stone, while others check by striking each other. Do not use those that make a dull sound inside the void or with a layered structure. If they contain moisture, then it will expand faster than a stone and can break it, forming dangerous flying fragments, which can knock out the eye if it is close enough.
A tinder can be any material that requires a minimum amount of heat to catch fire. A good tinder needs one spark to set fire. Birch bark, dry grass, thin wood shavings and slivers, bird fluff, wax paper and cotton from lining of clothes. All this can be a good tinder. As well as the crushed cones of conifers, pine needles and the inner layer of cedar. Fine materials for tinder are finely ground dried mushrooms, burnt or charred cotton and linen, especially finely ground.
If insects sharpen trees, then the fine dust generated in this way is a good tinder. You can also use powdered dry feces of birds and bats. Bird nests are usually lined with feathers from the inside and light up easily. Dry field mouse nests are also useful in this regard. Whatever tinder you use, it must be dry. It is very good to always have a dry tinder in a hermetically sealed container. Do not miss the opportunity to prepare tinder.
The kindling is called wood material, which is used to ignite a more massive and more difficult inflammable fuel from the tinder. The best kindling is thin, dry rods, preferably soft wood, as they quickly ignite. Resin rods light up easily and are sure to work..
The disadvantage of soft breeds (spruce, fir, aspen, etc.) is that they produce sparks and burn out very quickly. You may need quite a lot of such kindling to ignite the main fuel, and when using soft rocks as the main fuel, they quickly burn out. Do not collect kindling directly from the ground, it will almost always be wet, take it from dead wood. If the surface is wet outside, then cut it to dry wood..
Campfire incendiary sticks.
Cut on the rods or thin branches of the chips, not separating them at the end from the main part, so that you get shaggy incendiary sticks. A kindling thus treated ignites more easily and quickly ignites a fire.
Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.