A bonfire can be bred in order to survive for heating, drying clothes, cooking, making or repairing tools or weapons. Bonfire can also be used for signaling and arson. Bonfire preparation is very important.
Preparing a campfire site, making a campfire, using a campfire for heating and drying clothes, shoes and equipment.
As far as possible, a piece of land under a fire is cleared and all unnecessary items removed. As those that can cause a fire: dry grass and other combustible materials, so objects that interfere with burning, especially loose and towering. Campfire sites should be flat or with a small indentation. If a bonfire is lit on a combustible platform: peat bog, wooden raft floor, or wooden flooring over water or in tree branches, then such a platform is covered with a layer of earth, turf, sand, and preferably clay.
It is better not to make a fire in the snow, but to dig the snow to the ground. However, you can tamp the snow well, make a flooring on it for the bonfire site from large logs or stakes. In this case, the snow will melt to the ground and the bonfire itself will sit on solid ground. If possible, it is better not to make a bonfire on loose soil, then it burns worse and more fuel is consumed. Large stones, especially hard rocks of volcanic origin, can begin to crack and shoot with hot fragments due to heat.
Too strong a wind will interfere with the fire. The design of the fire can be adapted to the wind, but it must be remembered that the larger the wind, the denser the firewood is laid and the more the fire should be. The roots of the trees are very affected by a nearby bonfire. The bonfire cannot be planted under the branches of trees covered with a lot of snow, the snow will begin to melt and cover the bonfire. It is desirable to put a flooring of firewood on damp or loose soil, it is possible in two layers the second across the first. Similar floorings, in the presence of firewood, can be done in all cases.
It is necessary to kindle a fire sequentially. Starting with thin branches and gradually moving to thick logs. Thin branches need to be kindled with kindling. For kindling, you can use any natural materials: pieces of bark and birch bark, wood chips, specks, shavings, moss, etc. In addition to natural materials, artificial ones are also used: crumpled paper or pieces of fabric soaked in flammable liquid. The kindling is placed below the firewood, and under it there may be 1-2 rows of stakes of dense wood flooring. If possible, firewood should surround the kindling from all sides..
The use of a fire for heating and drying clothes, shoes and equipment.
The bonfire for heating, drying clothes, shoes and equipment should not be very large, a large bonfire burns. In general, several small bonfires give good results. Lying around a fire is better than sitting, less annoying smoke and more heating area. It is necessary to warm up around the fire evenly, turn to the fire with different parts of the body and wrap parts of the body from the shadow side. It is very undesirable to lie and sit on bare ground, use a litter of twigs, spruce branches, polyurethane foam mat, etc., or a flooring made of logs and sticks.
Near the bonfire it is useful to make a reflector of stone or branches. The bonfire heats especially well under a canopy, a more hermetic shelter will already require specific measures to protect against combustion products. You can just bring shelter hot stones, or make a hearth of the same stones in a well-ventilated shelter, such as a plague. After burning wood to smoldering coals, without flames, the hearth is covered with a loose cover, the ventilation openings are closed.
A very good heater is a bonfire pit. For its manufacture, a pit of any shape breaks out in the ground, its bottom is laid out with stones and, if desired, blowing is supplied. After burning wood, the pit closes with stakes, a thin layer of earth and grass to maintain heat. Above, you can comfortably settle for the night. A bucket or pot filled with pieces of smoldering charcoal or a dry tinder funnel with punched holes can heat the room, since it produces almost no smoke.
A piece of charcoal or a dry tinder fungus can be squeezed between the thumb and forefinger, lit it so that it begins to smolder between the fingers from the side of the opposite palm. Now, if you blow into the palm of your hand through a smoldering piece, you can warm your palms. You can also warm your hands and through them the body with a candle. When sitting on a tree, in a pit with a frame shelter, in a crypt, tent or some other cramped, uncomfortable and cold place, you can use a tin can or a pot with holes for ventilation filled with coal.
To maintain combustion and warming, this structure must be blown from time to time. You can warm your hands and then apply hot hands to frozen or diseased parts of the body, pinch your armpits, apply to the kidneys, lower back. It is useful to remember that if the flame, say candles, is yellow, then a lot of carbon dioxide has accumulated, the red flame indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide, in general, the blue flame indicates that the air is good.