As a result of smoking, it is possible to protect this product from spoilage, to prepare it for a long shelf life. In addition, due to the action of smoke during smoking, meat acquires a pleasant taste and aroma. This is especially important when processing game, which has a specific smell and taste..
Preparing and conducting meat smoking in the field, the advantages and disadvantages of the hot and cold method of smoking meat.
When the device for smoking meat or a smokehouse is prepared, you can begin the process itself. There are two ways to smoke meat: cold and hot. Cold smoking takes place at a smoke temperature of 20–40 degrees. The meat must be dried, cured in smoke. As a result, the processed carcass becomes denser, with hot smoking a softer product is obtained. Cold smoking over time takes longer than hot. In addition, cold smoked products can be stored for much longer..
With hot smoking, the temperature of the smoke is higher, and the process itself takes only a few hours. The temperature of the smoke during hot processing can range from 90 to 120 degrees. Due to short-term smoking, the meat loses less moisture and does not have time to soak heavily in smoke. The result is a semi-cooked product. The advantage of this method of smoking meat is that the meat retains its natural salt, it remains quite juicy and acquires a specific flavor.
firewood and sawdust, too dry firewood needs to be moistened a little.
Meat smoking method and product processing time with hot and cold smoking method.
The method of smoking meat and the processing time of the product will depend on the type of game, its size and on the culinary preferences of the procurer. You can smoke already prepared, salted or pickled meat, especially this applies to game, since it is harsh, low-fat and with a specific smell. After salting, the game is taken out, washed thoroughly in water and hung out for drying in the air under a canopy. In this position, the meat is dried for 1-2 days, then it can be placed in the smokehouse, hanging the carcass by the neck. Chopped meat can be laid out on the grill or hung like carcasses.
You can determine the time of smoking by the degree of readiness of the meat, determining it in the process. It is important that the game does not burn. Small game birds (duck and others) are smoked for 1.5 hours, mallard need to be smoked for 3.5–4 hours, large game (goose, goose) – up to 5 hours. In the process of smoking, it is necessary to maintain even the burning of the fire. According to experts, this is a whole art that comes only with experience. When the game smokes well, it is necessary, while it is hot, to clear of soot and soot. Then it is left for 1-2 days in a cool place, so that it cools down and dries, and then they are placed in rows in wooden boxes, shifted with clean straw, and put away for storage.
The hot method described above can be smoked using a simple bucket. After 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the pieces of meat and smokehouse, smoke rising from under the lid acquires a characteristic aroma and becomes drier. Final readiness can be determined by the appearance and color of the game and by how dry its surface will be. The smokehouse can be opened only for a very short time so that chocks are not ignited due to plentiful air access, especially since the temperature of the smoke inside rises to 80-100 degrees.
The shorter the processing time, the higher the smoke temperature should be. With direct smoking, coagulation of proteins occurs, the destruction of low-resistance organic compounds, together with moisture, a part of nitrogenous substances is lost, fat is absorbed. To determine the temperature inside the smokehouse, you can splash water on the lid, if it is, of course, metal. If the water does not boil, but simply evaporates, then the correct smoking regimen is maintained. This means that the bonfire needs to be maintained in this condition..
Features of hot and cold methods of smoking meat.
The finished hot smoked dish is not stored for a long time, especially in nature and without a refrigerator. It must be consumed within the next 2-3 days. However, hot smoking is considered the most convenient way to process game, because it is a quick, reliable and easy way to save and harvest the product. Cold smoking is a more time-consuming process, because you need to build a special smokehouse, and the process itself takes a lot of time. In this case, it is necessary to maintain an optimal regime of smoldering of sawdust and chips and the desired concentration of smoke.
Preparation of game meat for hot and cold smoking, pre-salting and curing of game meat.
Game meat is cooked in the same way for both cold and hot smoked. From elk carcass, breast and sides (ribs) are suitable for smoking, which must be well salted before 2 weeks. From boar and bear meat, the back, ribs, ham and brisket are suitable for smoking. After preliminary processing, all these parts of carcasses can be salted in a dry way in a wooden box with cracks. The bottom of the box must be covered with thick paper, then pour a layer of salt on which you can lay out layers of ham, ribs, back and brisket, abundantly rubbed with salt and spices.
From above all meat is also covered with a layer of salt. Then the box should be placed in a cool, dry place for 4 weeks. After the allotted time, pieces of meat must be removed, scraped off the salt remaining on the surface, rinsed and filled with water for 3 days, changing it every day. Then hang the pieces in the fresh air for drying. Depending on the weather and season, curing can last from 2 to 6 days. When the meat dries well, it must be sprinkled with bran, spices or crushed crackers and then smoked. The more salt in the meat, the lower the smoking temperature should be. The finished smoked product should have a light brown color and a pleasant aroma.
If the meat is not smoked immediately as it should, it can no longer be re-smoked, otherwise it will become too stiff. For the best result, the process of smoking meat should be continuous and, depending on the volume of the product, can last from 1.5 days to 1 week. When smoking the above-mentioned varieties of game, the smoke temperature in the smokehouse should not be higher than 35 degrees. To increase the amount of smoke, you need to periodically sprinkle firewood with damp sawdust or just moisten them with water. It is necessary to store meat after smoking in a cool, ventilated room, in a suspended state, having previously aired it a little and wiped it with a rag or straw. The taste of the smoked product will depend on its future use or use..
Preparation of poultry meat for hot smoking, hot smoking of poultry meat.
According to avid hunters, fatty smoked teal and quail are especially tasty. To smoke poultry, you can use the easiest way. First you need to properly prepare it. The carcasses need to be plucked, processed, then cut into 2 halves if the game is large, or cuts on the breast. Then the carcasses need to be lowered into boiling brine (50 g of salt per 1 liter of water) for 10-15 minutes. This is a wet salting method..
Then the meat must be hung on a special crossbar above the fire from the side where the smoke goes. You can use a homemade pipe to direct the flow of smoke, made from a sheet of iron or the bark of a large tree. To maintain smoke generation, a little damp twigs or slivers can be thrown into the fire. Such hot smoking of pre-cooked meat directly in the smoke of a bonfire is the fastest, easiest and most convenient in nature. In just 1 hour, the meat will be ready and you can immediately eat it. This method of smoking meat does not allow for a long time to store the product.
Features of meat smoking in portable metal smokehouses.
Often in camping conditions for smoking meat, special portable metal smokehouses for hot smoking are used. When smoking is done in such a chamber, it is necessary to properly prepare the meat. To do this, it is better to marinate game meat, and the marinade should be more salty than usual – about 1 g of salt will require about 50 g of salt. The carcasses of game birds need to be cut in half or flattened, the meat of large game cut into small pieces. After marinating, the meat should be slightly dried, wiped with a cloth and hung in a dark place for 1-2 hours to dry.
Next, prepare a smokehouse. At the bottom you need to pour a layer of thin shavings from dry sanded branches, and lay the meat on the wire rack. After this, the smokehouse must be closed and set on a fire. It is very important to choose the right temperature for hot smoked meat. Typically, meat processing in such a smokehouse lasts 3–3.5 hours. But if game is laid in the smokehouse, which has been previously boiled until half-cooked, the smoking process can be reduced to 1.5–2 hours. First, the smoke temperature in the smoke chamber should be approximately 45-50 degrees.
After the first period of smoking, which lasts several minutes, go to the second, when the temperature gradually rises to 55-60 degrees. While the meat is smoked, the chamber should not be opened, otherwise the regime of dry sublimation of chips will be violated. This is a very difficult way of smoking, so the first attempts at hot smoking of game, as a rule, end in failure. Usually, beginners put the smokehouse in a too hot place of the fire, as a result, the game is not smoked, but baked and overdried.
But do not give up, because only through personal experience can you master this difficult matter. It is very important to learn how to choose the right mode of hot smoking of meat, on which the final result will depend. Smoked game meat should eventually acquire a pleasant aroma and golden color. Even in summer, such meat can be stored for about 1 week, naturally, in a cool place. The same metal smokehouse can be easily adapted in the field conditions for roasting game, using as an oven.
Based on materials from the book “Fishing and Hunting Cuisine. Bowler, bonfire and night sky “.