Preserving one’s own health for the survivor in the wild becomes a paramount task when the means and equipment for first qualified medical care are absent.
Preservation and prevention of health, personal hygiene in the field and during extreme situations.
The treatment of any disease in nature is complicated by the high probability of infection, poor hygienic conditions for survival, acclimatization, exacerbation of intestinal, colds, infectious diseases, lack of therapeutic agents, adverse climate conditions, high humidity, heat, cold.
there are no opportunities for washing with hot water and soap, washing clothes, cutting hair and shaving.
Nevertheless, the observance of certain rules for maintaining health is strictly mandatory. When staying in the forest for a long time, you need to cut your hair short and cut off the nails on the fingers and toes as short as possible. Care must be taken to keep underwear and socks clean and dry. At least once a day during breaks (overnight) it is necessary to shake out clothes, shoes and underwear, air them and dry. Wash hands with at least cold water or wipe them with disinfectants (alcohol, potassium permanganate, aftershave cream, etc.).
If weather and environmental conditions permit, it is imperative to swim in natural ponds with clean water or arrange for washing the extremities with hot water, as well as washing clothes. Foot wear should be avoided in every way. Foot scuffs usually arise from incorrectly fitted shoes, from long walking in wet shoes, from the inability to wind a footcloth, from the fact that the toenails are too large and dirty. It is necessary that the shoes are always dry, worn, without folds and irregularities inside. Good shoes should be sturdy, with strong lacing (no Velcro!) And high. Each tourist must have at least two pairs of shoes in his personal property.
Non-compliance with the sanitary and hygienic requirements for equipment, and especially for clothes and shoes, can easily become a cause of harm to health, various scuffs, naminas and corns in the campaign. More often than not, those tourists who, for the sake of misunderstood fashion, wear too narrow trousers, tight high-heeled shoes without or a heel and other shoes and clothes not suitable for traveling conditions. Painful scuffs easily occur and those who do not keep their bodies clean on the road have a bad backpack, put on socks carelessly, don’t fix them or wear shoes on their bare feet without thick insoles and wool socks.
During the trip, you must quickly respond to changes in weather and other conditions, and accordingly change the shape of the clothes and the pace of movement, avoiding prolonged local overheating of the body, movement in wet clothes, not justified by the situation of marching throws, in which beginners, as a rule, lose their legs . If you find the slightest inconvenience in shoes or clothes, you must try to eliminate the cause that caused it, without waiting until it develops into a mint or scuffed.
To do this, it is advisable to change clothes, change shoes, change socks. Sometimes, as a preventive measure, you have to apply leg bandage with an elastic bandage, wearing gloves (while rowing on a boat), laying a soft object between a backpack and the back, etc. Regular hygiene procedures and maintaining cleanliness are an excellent preventive measure of health.
Daily skin and toe care.
One of the means of preventing health and fungal diseases is daily rubbing of the skin folds between the toes with a disinfectant solution: 0.5% potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), 2-3% formalin; soap paste, boric acid. You can also sprinkle the folds of the skin with dusted dry fungus-tinder fungus, fluff of fireweed (Ivan tea), moss sphagnum.
Daily oral cleaning.
In case of non-compliance, caries, periodontal disease, and other diseases of the oral cavity can develop. A finger can be replaced by a finger or a branch of a young shrub, a tree with a diameter of 0.5 cm, split on one side with a cross-cut with a knife, toothpaste will replace washed charcoal, plants with a bactericidal property (spruce, pine, mint), iodine, potassium permanganate gargle.
Field poisoning prevention.
It is necessary to observe the simplest hygienic rules: in camp conditions it is forbidden to use boiled sausages, unchecked home-made meat and dairy products, and canned food in bloated (so-called bombing) cans. Drinking water should be taken only from clean sources and be boiled. You can not leave canned foods in opened, especially metal, cans for recycling. Do not eat foods with a rancid smell or that have lost their normal appearance and color..
Field Heat Prevention.
To prevent overheating and thermal shock, some simple rules should be followed:
Do not wear unnecessarily warm and stuffy (non-ventilating and sweat-absorbing clothing).
In summer, make transitions on the route in the early, cool time of the day, and relax in the hot.
When moving, use shade or wind-blown places wherever possible..
Do not go on a route immediately after a heavy meal.
Slow down in hot weather.
First Aid for Heatstroke in the Field.
The victim is transferred to the shade, released from tightening clothes, given plenty of water, moistened head and chest with cold water (the head should be raised). If necessary, do artificial respiration. Inside give caffeine, and for headaches amidopyrine, analgin.
First aid for nosebleeds.
The victim is planted and provided with peace. A cold compress is placed on the nose and back of the head. If bleeding does not stop, squeeze the nostrils for 3-5 minutes with your fingers or tampon the bleeding nostril with cotton wool, gauze moistened with hydrogen peroxide.
Sunstroke, burn, snow blindness.
Solar radiation in the form of strong or prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause a sunstroke in a person similar to heatstroke, and burns on unprotected skin or mucous membrane. Even such a harmless form of burn as a re-burn spoils the impression of the entire route and causes pain from the straps of the backpack on the shoulders of a tourist. Especially careful should be in the snow and on the water. Light reflected from a snowy or water surface easily causes burns on lips, ears, nasal mucosa, chin.
A special type of burn is a burn of the mucous membrane of the eyes, the so-called snow blindness, accompanied by pain in the eyes, nausea, lacrimation, temporary loss of vision. Prevention of snow blindness is in many ways similar to the prevention of thermal shock. It is also necessary to comply with additional requirements:
In summer, wear a light-colored hat with a visor and sunglasses.
Tourists who are not accustomed to intense solar radiation should wear long-sleeved shirts with a collar that covers their necks..
It is forbidden to sunbathe on a full or empty stomach, sleep in the sun.
Tempering with the sun on a journey, gradually and carefully.
First aid for snow blindness.
Eyes are washed with a weak solution of boric acid, soda, a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, or strong cold tea. The victim is prescribed temporary rest and wearing dark glasses.
Strong winds lead to overcooling and frostbite even at moderately low temperatures. Wind causing a blowing snow, blizzard, dust storm, significantly impairs visibility, distorts the idea of distance. A strong wind not only complicates movement and leads to a loss of orientation, but also causes nervous exhaustion, a depressed state, a kind of demoralization, especially among inexperienced tourists.
Wind chill prevention.
Similar to prevention from the dangers of the cold. In very strong winds, blizzards, snowstorms, dust storms, it is necessary to stop moving along the route and settle on a forced bivouac under the protection of dense forests, steep banks of the river, etc. When windy and dusty weather, wear safety glasses to prevent eye clogging.
First aid for clogged eyes in the field.
Removal of a foreign body (mote) that has fallen on the mucous membrane of the eyelid or eyeball begins with an examination of the mucous membrane of the lower eyelid. For this, the victim is forced to look straight up and with the thumb they pull the edge of the eyelid down. To examine the mucous membrane of the upper eyelid, the patient is offered to look straight down, while the skin of the eyelid is pulled down and then turned out.
Having found the mote, it is carefully removed with a moist cotton, preferably soaked in a solution of boric acid. If for some reason the mote is not removed or is located on the cornea, the victim should be referred to a medical center as soon as possible. Do not rub your eyes or lick a speck. After removing the mote, you need to drop an albucid solution 3-4 drops 3-4 times.
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Maslov A.G., Konstantinov Yu.S., Latchuk V.G..