Dry-salted canning of skins is mainly used for livestock skins (sheep, goat, foal and calf skins) and groundhogs, and can also be used for any other skins if necessary for relatively long storage. This method requires preliminary partial degreasing (removal of large cuts of meat, pieces of fat).
Preservation of skins taken from animals, dry-salted, wet-salted, acid-salt, brine, pickling and using mustard powder.
The skins are spread out and sprinkled abundantly on the mezdra with finely ground table salt, rubbing it and making sure that there are no unsalted areas left. Then the skins are laid back for a day on the bedding, folding the mezdra removed by the layer to the mezdra, and the removed ones by tube – into a pile and covered with burlap. They are placed on an inverted basin, trough or wooden shield so that the lower ones are not covered by flowing brine.
When the allocation of the brine stops, the remaining salt is shaken off the skins and, depending on the method of shooting, they are dried on the rules or stretched. It is necessary to store the skins preserved in this way in dry rooms, if necessary, treating them with insecticidal preparations from moths and skin-eaters.
Wet and canned skins taken from animals.
Wet canning is used for skins of sea animals, livestock, and sometimes wild ungulates. It can be applied to the skins of bears, badgers, beavers and other animals with thick skins. This method requires skinning and is suitable for subsequent short-term storage or long-term storage in cool conditions..
It consists in salting the raw material with table salt without subsequent drying. A uniform layer of salt is applied to the meszra of spreading skins at the rate of 200-300 g of salt per 1 kg of the mass of skins. Saline skins stack mezra to mezra and stacked in storage piles.
Acid-salt preservation of skins taken from animals.
The acid-salt preservation of the skins consists in processing them with a mixture of 85% sodium chloride, 7.5% aluminum alum (mainly aluminum potassium, less often aluminum and ammonium aluminum) and 7.5% ammonium chloride (ammonia). It is used in the southern regions for marmot skins, it was also used for water-rat skins, does not require thorough degreasing of the mezra.
The pre-prepared mixture is applied abundantly on the mezdra, after which the skins are folded to the bed for 1 to 3 days in a cool place. Then the excess mixture is shaken off, and the skins are dried. This method should be used only in agreement with those who will produce further processing of fur raw materials. It is necessary to carefully observe the proportions of the components of the mixture, since the method of dressing depends on this.
Tuzlukovanie skins taken from animals.
Tuzlukovanie is a method of preserving in a saturated solution of table salt (brine) with subsequent salting when storing in stacks without drying. To prepare brine, salt is dissolved at the rate of 350 g of salt per 1 liter of water. The skins are kept in brine for 10 to 20 hours, then removed and hung to drain the solution.
After that, the skins are salted with dry salt at the rate of 200 g of salt per 1 kg of the mass of skins and laid for storage. Preliminary degreasing and washing of hides in water is required. The method is applicable to the skins of sea animals and livestock.
Pickling canning skins is an excellent way to process skins intended for subsequent home dressing. Well-skimmed skins are immersed in a picel solution – 20-30 g of acetic, lactic or formic acid or a mixture thereof and 30-40 g of table salt per 1 liter of aqueous solution. The skins are aged in a picel until a stable “drier” is formed.
This is defined as follows: the angle of the skins folded four times out is strongly squeezed by the fingers. If after that a whitish cross remains on the straightened mezdra and remains at least half a minute, then the skin is “ready”. Then the skins are dried guides or in a stretched condition. Pickled skins can be stored for a long time at home..
Preserving skins with mustard powder.
Good results are obtained by the method of preserving oily skins of small and medium size with mustard powder. Tests of it on the marmot skins of the Iondatra showed that this method allows you to store non-fat skins for a long time. So, muskrat skins are perfectly preserved for a week at room temperature without drying. Dried mustard skins are well preserved for more than a year..
The preservation process consists in rubbing the dry mustard powder into the meszra, followed by littering in the position of the skins of mezdra to mezdra from 2-3 hours to one day and drying. The costs of the preservative are low: 7–9 g of powder is consumed per one muskrat skin. The mustard method cannot be used for skins with white fur (arctic fox), since the mustard will remove wool.
Fresh-dry canning of skins taken from animals.
In all areas where the winters are cold, it is better to use fresh-dry preservation of fur with full balancing during long-term storage or partial hardening (removing only pieces of fat and meat from the skeleton) during short-term storage in the cold. It is not recommended to freeze fresh skins, since the crystalline dust formed in the thickness of the skin damages its fibers, and the strength of the skin decreases.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..