The most dangerous disease in the taiga of the middle zone of the Eurasian continent and the Far East is spring-summer tick-borne encephalitis. Viral disease transmitted by a bite by pasture ticks from the ixodidae family (Ixodes persulcatus, I.ricinus).
Prevention and treatment of diseases in the taiga, spring-summer tick-borne encephalitis, repellents, protection against blood-sucking insects.
It is also possible infection through mosquitoes and horseflies. The disease is characterized by natural foci and seasonality from May to the end of July, i.e., during the period of activity of pasture ticks. On the 7-14th day after a tick bite, body temperature rises to 39 degrees, accompanied by severe chills, sharp headaches and severe drowsiness and lethargy.
, it is very important to detect and remove the sucking parasite in time. To do this, regular physical examinations are carried out, especially after passing through a dense undergrowth of the taiga, after a night break. Do not tear off the tick with your hands. To make it fall off, just burn it with a cigarette, anoint it with iodine, alcohol or sprinkle it with tobacco powder, salt.
The proboscis remaining in the wound is removed with a needle calcined over a fire, and the wound is smeared with alcohol or iodine. By accidentally crushing the tick, in no case should you rub your eyes, touch the nasal mucosa before your hands are thoroughly washed. In the summer-autumn period, flying blood-sucking insects are especially painful for humans. Myriads of midges, mosquitoes literally stick around a person. They climb under clothes, clog in the nose, ears, inflict countless bites, leading people to frenzy. Special repellent repellents are used to protect against flying bloodsuckers and ticks..
They are used in pure form, in solutions, ointments, pastes, lotions. In the Soviet Union, a number of such drugs, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyltoluolamide, carboxide, cusol, hexamide cusol, repellin alpha, and others, have been developed. They are also used in various combinations, for example, a mixture of NIUF (dimethyl phthalate 50%, indalon 20%, dimethyl carbonate 5%) etc. Drugs differ both in the time of their action and in effectiveness against various types of bloodsucking. For example, RP-99 and dimethyl phthalate are better repelled by Anopheles girca-nus, Aedes cinereus, and the preparation of RP-122 is Aedes aesoensis, A.excrucians. The duration of a repellent is affected by ambient temperature and humidity..
So, pure dimethyl phthalate at an air temperature of 16 to 20 degrees protects against mosquitoes for 3-4 hours, but when it increases to 28 degrees, the time of repellent action decreases to 1.5 hours. The most lasting effect is repellent ointments and lotions. For example, the effectiveness of DETA cream and benzimine cream is 7-8 hours. The repellent effect of Anticomarin Lotion lasts for 8 hours. DID ointment reliably lasts 5 6.5 hours. Protective nets developed by academician E.N. Pavlovsky are very effective. Such a net, impregnated with repellent, is put on the head, leaving the face open. It reliably protects from attacks of flying bloodsuckers for several days.
In order to increase the service life of the impregnation nets, a special jelly was developed consisting of 1 g of cellulose acetyl, 1 g of acetone and 1 g of dimethyl phthalate. After processing this jelly, the repellent effectiveness of the nets lasts for many months and even years. Repellent napkins are very convenient and hygienic. They are made in the form of a multilayer bag of gauze or paper, impregnated with DEET or bentphthalate, packed in an airtight shell. Wiping with such a cloth protects against attacks of taiga insects for 3.5 hours.
To protect against insects with a liquid preparation, 15 20 drops are poured into the palm of your hand, and then spread with a thin layer on the skin. It is not recommended to lubricate the face with repellent immediately after shaving, apply to areas of damaged skin with scratches, cuts. Do not let the drug get into the eyes, on the nasal mucosa. Although the repellent is safe, it can cause severe irritation, accompanied by unpleasant sensations (pain, burning sensation, etc.). In this case, it is enough to wash your face with warm water and soap, so that all phenomena soon disappear. It is not recommended to apply repellent to a large area of the skin, so as not to disturb skin respiration.
To protect against ticks, repellent is impregnated with the waist part and the gap of the trousers, collars and cuff of the shirt at the rate of 40 g of the drug per 1 sq. m of fabric. In the taiga field, smoke campfires are widely used to repel insects. In order to drive insects out of the hut before going to bed, burning coals are placed in a tin can, mug or on a thick piece of bark, and covered with moist moss on top. The smoker is brought into the shelter, kept there until it is filled with smoke, and then it is well ventilated and the entrance is tightly closed. At night, the smokehouse is left at the entrance on the leeward side so that smoke, repelling insects, does not penetrate the shelter.
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.