The net fabric consists of crossing threads fastened in knots. For knitting nets, linen, cotton, nylon, silk and other threads are used, having the same thickness along the entire length and tensile strength corresponding to the future product. The thread for weaving nets should be smooth, flexible, resistant to environmental influences.
Production, weaving, knitting networks, simple knots, preliminary calculations, the sequence of the beginning of knitting networks, painting the finished network.
Knitting networks begin with the first row of cells. Their number in a row depends on the network width and cell size. The required number of half-balls is tied to the first row of cells to get the canvas of the desired length. Knit a network with a shuttle and a template. The shuttle is designed to accommodate threads, perform knotting operations, stitching products from the network and repairing them.
Mesh web, appearance and data for calculations.
The width of the shuttle should be half the size of the cell. Length – 10-15 times the width. Thickness – the minimum, but appropriate strength of the material so that the shuttle does not bend from the tension of the threads wound around it.
Tools used in knitting nets, shuttles of various designs.
The template is designed to give the cells of the networks the required uniform size. Templates are made in the form of plates. Usually oval section, 10-12 cm long. The width of the template (with a thickness of 2-3 mm) should be such that the length of one turn of thread around it is equal to the double size of the cell.
In the stretched position, the network cells are equilateral quadrangles whose sides (threads) are connected by nodes. Cell size is determined by the distance between nodes. Knitting nets – these are repeatedly repeated operations for tying and tightening knots, with which the lower row of half-eyes is tied to the upper row of cells.
Simple, most common knots with one lap for knitting nets.
To learn how to quickly and high-quality knit a network, you must first learn the techniques of knitting knots. Trap – holding the shuttle through the upper cell when tying to the bottom.
Knot through the little finger for weaving networks.
Such a knot is tied as follows. Holding the template between the thumb and ring fingers of the left hand, the middle is introduced into the upper cell and the network is pulled. The thread coming from the node of the upper cell is circled around the template and ring finger. Then hook on the index, middle and little finger. The little finger is pressed to the palm of the hand and, without loosening the thread tension, hold the shuttle with the right hand from the bottom into the first loop (around the ring finger and the template) and make an overhang from below into the cell under the middle finger.
Tying a simple knot through the little finger when knitting nets.
Having placed the thread on top of the template, they begin to pull it to the upper cell. In this case, all fingers, except the little finger, are released from the loops. When the weave of threads is on the upper edge of the template, the weave is clamped with the thumb and forefinger. Then the little finger is released from the loop and finally tighten the knot between the fingers on the upper edge of the template.
This method of knitting network nodes is considered the best. Firstly, because the formed node does not move along the thread of the upper cell, as a result of which all four sides of the cell are the same. Secondly, despite the apparent complexity, knitting is done at the highest speed. Since you only have to intercept the shuttle once, passing it through the upper mesh. However, this method does not allow knitting networks with a mesh size of less than 1 cm. With a certain skill, a knot through the little finger can be knitted blindly.
Knot with a lash on top for weaving networks.
Such a knot fits in two steps. The first operation: the thread coming from the previous node is wrapped around the template, the shuttle is carried out to the upper cell from above (overhang from above) and the cell is pulled to the upper edge of the template. In this case, the threads of the upper cell should turn and form a small loop at the bottom. Then the loop together with the upper edge of the template is tightly clamped between the thumb and middle finger.
Tying a simple knot with a lash on top.
Second operation: the thread is circled around the thumb and forefinger. The shuttle is passed under the lower threads of the upper cell, over the thread above the thumb and forefinger and finally tightens the knot between the thumb and middle finger.
It is important to tighten while tightening the knot swept the loop of the upper cell. To do this, it is useful, without easing the pressure, to slightly move the thumb up. The thread tightening the knot should be directed down and slightly to the right.
Knot with overhang at the bottom for weaving networks.
The first operation: the thread is circled around the template, the shuttle is passed into the upper cell from the bottom (overflow from the bottom) and pulled to the edge of the template. The place of weaving of the threads is clamped between the fingers. The second operation is the same as when knitting a knot with an overhang on top. Simple knots, if they are correctly tied and tightly tightened, are motionless. To exclude the possibility of their movement along the thread of the upper cell, sometimes double knot nodes are used.
Double Overlap Cellular Nodes for Weaving Networks.
They differ from simple ones in that the second overlap is carried out either after tightening a simple knot, or in the process of tying it. A knot is formed after tying and tightening a knot with a lap from above, followed by a lash from below and a second tightening.
Types of knots with double overlaps when knitting nets.
The second knot is obtained in the process of tying the knot with the overhang on top. After the first overhang and the shuttle is held under the threads of the upper cell, a second overhang is made from below for the right cell thread and tighten the knot. This knot is more compact, good for knitting networks of single-strand yarns.
Preliminary calculations carried out before knitting networks.
Before starting knitting the net, it is necessary to perform some calculations, prepare a sufficient number of threads, pick up or manufacture a shuttle and a template. The calculation of the number of cells is as follows. Suppose you want to tie a net cloth measuring 11.5 meters and a mesh of 7 cm. In the stretched position of the network, its cells will look like squares. The number of cells in a row is determined by the ratio:
N = W: c
Where N is the number of cells in the row P1; W – the width of the network (the length of one row of cells); c is the length of the diagonal of the square formed by the mesh. Since c = a, where a is the cell size, then N = III: (a).
Substituting the initial data in the formula, we obtain: M = 100: (71.41) = 10. Thus, each row of the network that determines its width should contain 10 cells. Since the length of the network is 11.5 meters, N = 150 should be attached to the first row of cells: (71.41) = 15 – another 15 rows of cells, or 30 rows of half-eyes.
To tie one row of semi-balls, you need about 140 cm of thread (2aN = 2710 = 140), and for 30 rows – 42 meters of thread. You should take the thread with some excess (about 15% of the total length) for tying knots and random breaks of the thread, that is, for the production of a network measuring 11.5 meters with a mesh of 7 cm, about 46 meters of thread will be required. For a cell measuring 7 cm, a shuttle 4 cm wide is needed. The width and thickness of the template are selected so that one revolution of the thread around the template is 14 cm.
Ways to start knitting nets.
Start knitting a network can be done in two ways. The first way – knitting simultaneously two rows of cells. Wrapping the thread once around the template and tying its ends, get an auxiliary loop “O”. From the thread coming from the shuttle, make two turns around the template and tie a knot at its edge. Both loops are removed from the template, the straightened second loop will be the first mesh cell.
This cell is inserted into the auxiliary and suspended on a nail. Or on any other stationary object located at a distance of the outstretched arm of the knitter. If it is decided to knit a network with knots, for example, with an overlap from below, proceed as follows. Circle the thread around the template, make a loop in the loop (1) from below, pull it to the edge of the template, tie and tighten the knot, forming a cell (2).
Knitting start sequence.
Next, the template is removed from the cell (2), the auxiliary loop is cut and removed. The first loop is removed from the nail, rotated 180 and hung again on the nail. In the same way, the next knot is tied up, forming a cell (3). In the same sequence, knit the following cells.
The resulting garland should consist of even and odd loops, the number of which should be equal to the estimated number of cells in the network row. Then a string is drawn into even cells, and its ends are tied. Suspend the loop on the nail and begin to form subsequent rows.
The second way to start knitting nets.
A small loop is tied at the end of the thread so that the shuttle passes into it. A lace is inserted into this loop and, having tied its ends, they hang the loop from the lace onto the nail. Having thrown the thread going from the loop node (1) onto the template and passing the shuttle into the loop from the lace, pull the template to the first loop node, tie and tighten the sliding node, thereby forming a loop (2).
The sliding knot is tied in the following sequence: after pulling up the template, the last two threads going up are clamped on its edge with the thumb and middle fingers. The thread from under the thumb is thrown onto the index, the shuttle is held under the two threads of the loop formed and on top of the thread thrown onto the index finger. The knot is tightened on the upper edge of the template between the thumb and middle fingers, next to the first knot.
The beginning of knitting networks in the second way.
In the same sequence knit all the nodes of the first row in the width of the future network. To make the loops the same, you should not keep on the template for more than five to six half-eyes. They must be dropped from the left end of the template as new ones accumulate. Having connected the required number of loops and half-eyes, the loop from the lace is removed from the nail and rotated 180 degrees.
A template is extracted from the half-ball and from the left edge they begin to knit the next row of half-net. The procedure is repeated until a network of the required length is obtained. In the process of knitting nets more than once you have to face the fact that the supply of thread on the shuttle is exhausted or it is cut off. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to properly bind a thread.
To do this, the ends of the dangling thread and the threads from the charged shuttle are folded together, slightly twisted and tied with a regular knot next to the previous one, tightened at the edge of the template. The ends of the threads are cut at a distance of 3-5 mm. It is useful to melt the ends of kapron threads over a flame.
When knitting a net of long length, one should not allow the distance from the hands of the knitter to the nail to be more than one meter. For this, as the network is made, the loop from the cord should be removed from the first row and the cord should be passed into the cells located near the hands of the knitter. So that during knitting the free edges of the finished fabric do not twist and do not interfere with work, a hook with a small load can be suspended from its cells.
If it is necessary to connect the network fabric not of a rectangular shape, but of any other shape, the cell is added and reduced. To increase the number of cells in the next row compared to the previous one, you need to tie an additional loop to the previous row in the ways shown in the figure below. To reduce the number of cells in a row, you need to tie one of the cells of the next row to two cells of the previous.
Adding and decreasing grid cells in a row.
Linking network panels allows you to make products of various shapes (cylindrical, cone-shaped, bag-shaped, etc.). Network sheets of the required shape and size, having edge cells with three nodes, are connected to each other using the shuttle in one of the ways.
Methods for linking individual network panels.
Painting of finished networks.
In all cases of using net fishing tools, except for cases when hunters actively trap animals, it is necessary that the nets do not stand out from the terrain. This is achieved by using appropriate color nets. In the snowy period – white, and in snowless – any dark color. The easiest way to repaint white nets is some dark color, and whitening dark nets is much more difficult. Such whitening rarely achieves the desired result..
Nylon and nylon, of which del and rope are most often made now, can be dyed with both dyes for nylon and dyes for cotton and wool, but it is better, of course, with dyes for nylon. It must be borne in mind that these materials do not withstand prolonged heating. In a boiling solution, they are deformed. All recommendations for dyeing are usually indicated on dye packages and must be followed..
First of all, you need to weigh the networks that you are going to paint. In order to determine how much dye is needed and how much water to dissolve it. On packages in which dyes are sold, the mass of dry fabric for which the contents of the package is designed is indicated. Usually it is enough to stain 400 g of dry tissue. The depth of the tone obtained in this case is shown on the label. Or on a sample sample attached to the bag. If you want to enhance or weaken the depth of tone, then the amount of dye or fabric is changed accordingly.
Painting of finished nets from kapron or nylon thread.
When dyeing capron and nylon with dyes for cotton and wool, two tablespoons of vinegar essence and three tablespoons of sodium chloride are added to the dye solution for each dye bag. The solution is heated to 40 degrees, the network is lowered into it and painted without heating for 15-20 minutes. Then the solution is heated to a temperature not exceeding 75 degrees, and painted for another 20-30 minutes. Then the network is left in a cooling bath for 15-20 minutes. Take out, allow the dye solution to drain, rinse and squeeze.
When kapron and nylon are dyed with kapron dyes, the dye is ground to a uniform paste. Adding a small amount of warm water (30-40 degrees). 10 g (tablespoon) of detergent for wool is introduced into this paste. The consistency of the paste should be creamy.
The paste is dissolved in 6 liters of water, and the nets are painted in this solution at 70-75 degrees for 1-1.5 hours. Then the network is removed from the solution and washed first in a detergent solution. Then in warm and cold water. Then squeezed and dried.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..