Table of contents
Protection against weapons of mass destruction
- Nuclear explosion
- Radiation sickness
- Life in the radioactive zone
- Food in the radioactive zone
- Chemical contamination of the environment
- Spread of pathogens
- Protective kit
It is a country where you can drive “hot spots”. If you’re looking out for the international situation, try to go somewhere far away. Set at least 30 km away from big cities. Do not settle down for long periods of time.
Ignored by light radiation. Sleeves and legs should be long. Wearing a pair of glasses. If you want to go for a blink, you’ll see what you want to do. Do not hide it behind the blast overturns it or destroys it. It was carried out by the wind.
Radioactive fallout is the most dangerous in the first days. In the days of radioactive radiation in a safe shelter. If you’re not in the room for 1.5 hours. Make it a little longer, make sure you don’t use fire.
An electromagnetic pulse pattern is generated and it can be used for shielding.
Purchase an individual dosimeter. Understand the radiation exposure to the body. The main ones are as follows:
- Absorbed dose is absorbed by the body in terms of mass. Measured in radas and X-rays. X-ray is not expressed by gamma quanta.
- This is a matter of course. Measured in rem (biological X-ray equivalents).
- This is an equivalent dose of radiation.
- The radioactive substance is measured.
- Receive a dose of radiation per unit of time. It is measured at a distance of 1 meter from the surface of the earth. It is expressed in X-rays per hour.
The dosimeter can be variously graded. To determine the absorbed dose of radiation, the dosimeter should be switched on constantly. To determine the level of radiation, it is turned on at the time of measurement. It is the breakdown of the electric capacitor that causes the measurement. Therefore, it should last at least 30 seconds. The radiation level is reduced. Accuracy levels should not be exceeded.
Types of ionizing radiation:
- The particles of the particles are positively charged fragments of atoms. Delayed outer dead skin layer. Very dangerous in case of internal exposure.
- The flow of beta particles: free electrons. Penetrates into the body a few centimeters.
- Electromagnetic radiation: gamma quanta. It has a high penetrating ability.
- Neutron flux: uncharged particles. It has a particularly high penetrating ability.
|Radioactive products of a nuclear explosion|
Radioactive substance (with isotope number)
|Zirconium 95||64 days|
It is a very intensely radiating effect. When decaying, other radioactive substances are sometimes even more harmful. It is not. Possible radioactive contamination of substances; Possible secret disposal of radioactive waste.
This can be a significant increase. Some building materials can be radioactive, for example, pumice, phosphogypsum, concrete with slag filler, alumina. Relatively high radioactivity in granite. Another non-obvious danger is radioactive radon gas. It receives from radioactive radon. Radon is accumulated in unventilated areas. It is less than the lower. Wallpaper reduces the radon from the wall material. A lot of radon is contained in artesian water. When boiling, it is mostly evaporates. It is dangerous to get in it (this happens, for example, in the bathroom). It should not be used. In general, it is necessary to ventilate more housing. It is not necessary to protect the floor. Some commonly used objects can be highly radiating.
The danger comes from the most unexpected side. For example, uranium was used for artificial porcelain teeth. Watches with a phosphorescent dial are also a source of small radiation. This was a strong slab in a residential building. Ampoule has been used for the slab. There is a chance that a few people died. It can be used to protect people. For example, there has been a radioactive banknotes.
The properly operated power plant is not a source of additional radiation. Saving heat in rooms (rare airing), and X-ray examinations. The accident of radioactive substances. In some localities, natural background radiation is quite high. Radiation poses a threat to living beings even with small waves of radiation. For a child, it is much more dangerous for a pregnant woman. The effects of exposure can occur in 10-year-olds and even in the next generations. Radiation organs, mammary glands, bone marrow, lungs, eyes suffer. Consequences of exposure to low intensity – cancer, genetic defects. It is harmful, but it is harmful.
There are still ways you can find out about it. This is much the same. It is a fact that it’s not a problem. There is often a negative impact on the environment.
The following dose limits have been established in the Armed Forces:
- Single radiation: 50 roentgens;
- Repeated irradiation: 100 x-ray for a month.
It’s not possible to get rid of it.
If you are a cattle car (TV, computer) than once a year.
The sign of the ozone. A few hours after severe exposure, nausea and headache appear. During the day, these symptoms disappear and there is a seemingly prosperous period. There is a pain in the eyes. The number of leukocytes for blood transfusion arises. Approximately on the 20th day after strong irradiation, traces of radioactive burns appear, hair falls out, nails disappear. Donor bone marrow transplantation can only help. There are cases of complete cure after receiving a lethal dose. In this case, it was a great desire to survive.
After local irradiation, the disease develops as follows:
- The skin of the body is red.
- The latent period lasting from several hours to 5 weeks;
- Sealing of the skin;
- Yellowish liquid;
- Opening of the blisters, the formation of non-healing ulcers.
The peculiarity of radiation burns. Perhaps the cancerous degeneration of ulcers. Signs of chronic mild exposure and hair loss.
During the course of irradiation, there are few reduce its destructive effect.
It would be possible to make it out as soon as possible. If you’ve been on the ground, you’ll be able to stay on the ground. If it becomes the area where it becomes dust. The following is recommended for dust protection:
- Clean during normal cleaning;
- Wash clothes more often;
- Often wipe the dust in the home (do not sweep!);
- Try to breathe less dust on the streets;
- Stay away from dusty roads;
- Do not walk in windy weather;
- The wind doesn’t carry dust;
- If dust enters the cloud, hold your breath;
- Rinse the nasopharynx and eyes with warm brackish water every evening; wash more often;
- Water filter for each small window;
- Refrain from nature trips and field work;
- It is impossible to avoid a bandage; respirator must be washed from time to time.
It is bad if the water is taken from a river or lake. Artesian water in such conditions is usually less radioactive, despite the presence of radon in it.
Animals, especially fish, accumulate significantly more radioactive substances than plants, because of these plants. As a consequence, it is recommended. Especially a lot of radioactive substances are not boil the bones. Fruits are less radioactive than vegetables. Is better to cut. A lot of radioactive substances accumulate mushrooms. Abandoned gardens and vegetable gardens remain, fish and game multiply rapidly. It is a great temptation for the adventurous villains. In a pinch, before making a purchase, wait with the dosimeter near the product. It was iodine, it was the iodine (these are sea fish, sea kale). Such a diet weakens the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland.
Poisonous substancesOB) it usually happens in case of traffic accidents. It is also possible to use warfare agents in hostilities and terrorist acts. Chemical agents can be in the air (in the form of gas, vapor, less often – aerosol and dust), in water bodies, in water. Resistance OB – from several months. When using a screen for a few seconds. Poisonous fumes can accumulate in lowlands, in basements. Smell or color. It makes it possible for you to get it out. Through the skin, liquid and vaporous agents are affected. Vaporous agents can penetrate to the body through clothing. It has been confirmed for all of us. At low air temperatures, the agents persist longer. It can secretly accumulate in the environment. It is the scattering, the decomposition, the decomposition of the substance. Sunlight tends to help neutralize organic matter.
By the nature of the impact, combat agents are divided into several groups.
- Nerve agent: ZARIN. Volatile liquid Couples 4.8 times heavier than air. It has a weak fruity odor. Terrain resistance 1..4 hours in summer, up to 2 days in winter. It can be done through the skin. Coman. It is a slight smell of camphor. Volatility is about 4 times lower than that of sarin. Couples 6.3 times heavier than air. It is used in the form of aerosols. It affects through the skin. Vx. Odorless, low volatile fluid. Terrain resistance: up to 3 months. The period of the hidden action is a few hours. It affects through the skin. Able to accumulate in the body. Toxic sarin 10 times when acting through the respiratory system, 200 times – when acting through the skin. Lethal dose for skin contact – 10 mg. All these nerve agents are compounds of poisoning. Restoring the condriction of the pupils. Signs of severe poisoning: shortness of breath, vomiting, headache, convulsions. The antidote is atropine.
- Choking agents: FOSGEN. Colorless gas. It becomes liquid at 8 degrees of heat. Haze. Through the skin does not work. 3.5 times heavier than air, therefore it accumulates in low places. Causes pulmonary edema. Keeps the ground from 20 minutes to 3 hours. The hidden period of 4..5 hours. Signs of defeat: cough, shortness of breath. The victim dies within a few minutes of stopping breathing. After inhalation of a small dose of phosgene comes temporary relief. Hidden period lasts from 1 to 12 hours. The sign is a sweet taste in the mouth. Death occurs within two days of pulmonary edema.
- Skin blistering agents: IPRIT. It can be used in the form of aerosols. It remains in the winter for 2..7 days, in the winter up to 2 months. It is absorbed into paint and rubber coatings. Acts through the respiratory system and skin. Significantly affects the eyes. In the vapor state, easily penetrates ordinary clothing. It can be extremely dangerous. The latent period is 4..6 hours. Hell for a few weeks or months. Sign of lung damage: redness of the skin. The first signs of severe damage: vomiting, fever, impaired cardiac activity. If it enters the respiratory tract and cough, later bronchopneumonia and pulmonary edema.
- Commonly Harmed OB: CLEANER. At temperatures above 13 degrees Celsius – gas. The body is missing. Irritating to eyes. Consequences of poisoning: vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis. Not delayed by anti-gas filter HYDROCYANIC ACID. Highly volatile colorless liquid. Vapors are lighter than air and disperse quickly on the ground. With an insignificant degree of damage, it is a bitter taste,
- Hallucinogenic agents: BZ. In the normal state – a crystalline substance. It is applied in a form of an aerosol (obtained by thermal sublimation). The hidden period is 30..60 minutes. Damage – through the respiratory system and stomach. It appears to the maximum extent in 2..4 hours. Action: dilated pupils, weakness, depression of the psyche, clouding of consciousness, hallucinations. Severe state lasts 4..12 hours.
- Annoying agents: Adamsit. Crystal substance. It is used in the form of aerosols. Causes a sharp burning sensation in the nasopharynx, sneezing, coughing, etc. The intolerable concentration is 0.005 mg / l. The effect lasts from several tens of minutes to several hours. CHLOROCETOPHENON. High volatile solid. It is applied in the form of sprayed powder or solution. Intolerable concentration – 0,0045 mg / l. Irritation quickly disappears after area area gas mask.
Artillery shells and mines, rock instruments, land instruments, aero bombs, radio instruments, and mechanical aerosol generators. It can be used after the first explosions of the shells, mines, etc.
If this is a signal of danger. It is necessary to follow the authorities and those who are preparing for evacuation. An unusual (even pleasant!) If evacuation is not possible, you should not take shelter in some room. In the case of a sealant, it can cloth, paper, cotton wool. It can be enough to make it. During this time, the poisonous cloud will be dispelled by the wind. It is the most dangerous.
In the wild, there is no matter of course. Infection occurs through contact with infected people, bites of infected insects. It depends on the type of microorganism. For several weeks, it can be a fever, typhoid fever, another intestinal infection. Means of disinfection of clothing, food, water:
- High temperature (boiling, cooking);
- Hard radiation (X-ray, ultraviolet; sunlight kills microorganisms due to the ultraviolet component of its spectrum);
- Chemically active substances (iodine, potassium permanganate, chloramine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol).
It is usually almost sterile.
The Old Testament (the book “Numbers”):
“He has been unclean for seven days” (19:11).
“If you’re a man of dies in the tent, then you’ll be unclean for seven days” (19:14).
“Anyone who touches … will be unclean for seven days” (19:16).
“And everything that the unclean touches will be unclean; And a touched man be unclean until the evening ”(19:22).
“It will be cleaned” (19:19).
“If you’re a man, he will be cut off from among the people” (19:20).
To protect you from radioactive dust. It can be used for other purposes.
As part of the protective kit should be:
- Safety glasses (for example, ski);
- Thick rubber gloves;
- Rubber boots;
- Pants, jacket (with a hood) – made of bolonevoy or rubberized fabric.
It is necessary to avoid any external contaminated surfaces. The wind is taken away from the wind.
Alexander Buryak, editors – LastDay.Club
from the book The Art of Survival
Advice and preparation for emergencies