Pulmonary edema develops against the background of left ventricular heart failure. Pulmonary edema, as a rule, develops with myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, severe heart defects, cardiac arrhythmias and other diseases with circulatory failure.
Pulmonary edema, causes, signs and symptoms, first aid for pulmonary edema.
The most important sign of pulmonary edema is rapid breathing (inhalation – exhalation) to 30–40 or more in 1 minute, which then goes into voodoo. Characteristically, the patient’s forced position is sedentary or half-sitting. The patient appears agitation, anxiety. The skin is pale, mucous membranes are bluish.
on the legs, blood stagnation in the extremities occurs and, accordingly, blood flow to the heart and manifestations of pulmonary edema decrease. To apply bundles is not very tight so that the arterial blood flow does not stop. They are applied to the limbs alternately for 15 minutes, napkins or clothes are placed under them. With pulmonary edema against the background of arterial hypertension, bloodletting from veins is sometimes performed (no more than 300-400 ml).
With pulmonary edema, it is better to administer drugs intravenously, put under the tongue and use inhalations, which contributes to a quick therapeutic effect. If with pulmonary edema there are pronounced signs of bronchospasm, then an intravenous drip in glucose solutions or in a physiological solution is prescribed aminophylline for 30 minutes. Sometimes they use a jet injection of 5-10 ml of a 2.4% solution of aminophylline. Narcotic painkillers (1% solution of promedol and 0.005% solution of fentanyl) are administered intravenously, drip or stream..
A good effect is given by drugs that reduce the load on the heart. In the treatment of pulmonary edema, nitroglycerin is used in physiological saline, which is administered intravenously. Prior to admission to the hospital, nitroglycerin can be given in tablets or capsules under the tongue every 10–20 minutes. To reduce the volume of fluid in the body and, accordingly, pulmonary edema, diuretics of short action are used, which are administered intravenously (40-200 mg of furosemide).
A significant role in the treatment of pulmonary edema is played by cardiac glycosides administered intravenously. So, when a patient enters the hospital, they immediately begin to inject digoxin (1 ml of 0.025% solution) or strophanthin (0.5–1 ml of 0.025–0.05% solution) intravenously in an isotonic solution or in glucose solution. But they are not used for pulmonary edema against the background of acute myocardial infarction.
A mandatory component of the treatment of pulmonary edema is oxygen inhalation through a mask or nasal catheter. To reduce the foam coming from the mouth and nose, and to improve the patency of the trachea and bronchi, the patient is allowed to breathe alcohol vapor. Why oxygen is passed through ethyl alcohol.
A patient with pulmonary edema should be urgently taken by an ambulance to the intensive care unit. Transportation should be carried out on a stretcher in a prone position with a raised head and upper body.
Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.