Pyrotechnic compositions, lighting, tracing, signal flames, signal colored fumes, masking smoke compositions.

Lighting structures are equipped with pyrotechnic devices, which are designed to illuminate the area at night for the purpose of observation and aimed shooting. 

Pyrotechnic compositions, lighting, tracing, signal flames, signal colored fumes, masking smoke compositions.

In the lighting pyrotechnic composition, the oxidizing agent may be barium nitrate, sodium nitrate, sodium chlorate. Powders of aluminum, magnesium, and sulfur are used as fuel. Cementers of the composition are iditol, resin, drying oil, shellac, etc. An example of the lighting composition: 57% barium nitrate + 27% magnesium + 13% aluminum + 2% drying oil + 1% graphite. The composition burns long enough with a bright concentrated white flame in the form of a ball.

. A limited luminescence duration is achieved by combining high press-in pressure and selecting the quantity and properties of the cementer. Tracer compounds give a colored flame. The required flame color of the tracer compositions is achieved by the introduction of metal salts, which give a flame coloring.

Tracing pyrotechnic compositions of red fire: 30% strontium nitrate + 40% magnesium + 10% shellac. The red color of the flame is provided by the presence of strontium.
Tracing pyrotechnic compositions of green fire: 60% barium nitrate + 20% magnesium + 30% organochlorine hexachloroethane + 10% resin. Green is provided by the presence of barium.
Tracing pyrotechnic compositions of yellow fire: 60% barium nitrate + 30% sodium oxalate + 15% magnesium + 5% resin. Yellow is provided by the presence of sodium in the composition.

Signal flame pyrotechnic compositions.

Signal flame pyrotechnic compositions are used to equip the signal means, which provide the supply of signals at night and day. The required color of the flame signal compositions is achieved by the introduction of metal salts, which give a coloring of the flame. In signaling agents, compositions are used that can produce red, green, yellow, blue and white flames.

The compositions of red, green and yellow lights are formed in the same way as the tracer compositions of the corresponding lights. However, there is a difference between them. Tracer compositions require mechanical strength, and signal ones primarily require the purity of the color of the flame. Therefore, the amount of cement in the signal compositions is usually minimal.

The composition of the red light: 60% strontium nitrate + 33% magnesium + 7% paraffin. The red color of the flame is provided by the presence of strontium.
Composition of green fire: 68% barium nitrate + 19% hexachloroethane + 8% magnesium + 5% iditol. Green is provided by the presence of barium.
The composition of the yellow fire: 40% potassium nitrate + 30% sodium oxalate + 30% magnesium. Yellow is provided by the presence of sodium in the composition.
Composition of blue fire: 61% potassium chlorate + 20% copper oxide (mountain blue) + 19% sulfur. The blue color of the flame is ensured by the presence of chlorine and copper in the composition.
The composition of the white light: 56% barium nitrate + 11% potassium nitrate + 19% aluminum + 6% barium fluorate + 8% sulfur. Barium nitrate gives the flame a greenish tint, potassium nitrate is pinkish. With their joint presence in the composition, the flame is not bright white.

Alarm pyrotechnic compositions of day action, colored fumes.

Daytime signal pyrotechnic compositions (colored smoke) are also used for signaling in the daytime. In military affairs, smoke-colored ammunition is equipped with colored smoke compounds. Apply 6 primary colors of signal smoke: red, orange, black, yellow, blue and green.

Compositions of colored fumes usually contain: potassium chlorate 20-40%, carbohydrates 15-25%, dye 45-55%, a binder 0-5%. They lack metallic fuels. As dyes, rhodamine (red), girorange (benzolazo-beta-naphthol, fat-soluble orange), auramine with the addition of brown dye chrysoidine (yellow), blue indigo (blue), a mixture of auramine and indigo (green) are usually used.

The composition of red smoke: 30-35% potassium chlorate + 25-30% milk sugar + 40-50% rhodamine.
The composition of orange smoke: 30-35% potassium chlorate + 20-30% milk sugar + 40-50% fat.
The composition of black smoke: 45-50% potassium chlorate + 40-50% anthracene + up to 15% coal. Anthracene provides black smoke.
Composition of yellow smoke: 30-35% potassium chlorate + 20-25% milk sugar + 40-42% auramine + up to 10% chrysoidine.
The composition of green smoke: 35% potassium chlorate + 25% milk sugar + 15-30% auramine + 15-30% indigo.
The composition of blue smoke: 35% potassium chlorate + 25% milk sugar + 40% synthetic indigo.

Masking smoke pyrotechnic compositions.

Masking smokes are used to mask their troops or to blind the enemy. Their compositions can be of two types. Some compositions contain smoke-generating substances in finished form, which evaporate during the combustion of the composition (ammonia).

An example of this type is the Ershov mixture: 20% potassium chlorate + 50% ammonia (ammonium chloride NH4CI) + 20% naphthalene + 10% birch charcoal. The smoke composition of Ershov has a very good density. The combustion temperature of the composition is minimally low. The remainder of the combustion is very light, porous. Instead of naphthalene, anthracene can also be used..

In compositions of the second type, smoke-forming substances are formed as a result of combustion of the composition. An example is a mixture: 40% carbon tetrachloride + 34% zinc + 14% sodium chlorate + 9% ammonia + 3% kieselguhr (carbon tetrachloride scavenger).

Based on the book Explosives and gunpowder.
A.N. Kalyazhenkov, D.P. Malgin.

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