Pyrotechnic signaling devices, signaling rockets, signaling cartridges for night and day action PSND, raised beam, ground signaling cartridge, features of the device and application.

The detection range of a single human figure, like a small group of people, when observing in the daytime from an airplane flying at an altitude of 200 meters, is: 1.5 km in summer, 1.6 1.8 km in winter. To increase the effectiveness of the visual search, victims need to use additional technical means, which primarily include various power and purpose signal light and sound pyrotechnics, parachute signal rockets, rocket launchers, mortar ammunition, PSND, raised fire, smoke bombs and the like. 

Pyrotechnic signaling devices, signaling rockets, signaling cartridges for night and day action PSND, raised beam, ground signaling cartridge, device and application features.

There are few emergency kits that did not include flares. There are many types of signal, lighting and other missiles (one and multi-star, red, white, green, etc.) designed for emergency and other signaling, lighting, and other highly specialized purposes. A distress signal is considered to be one or more bright red or raspberry stars, released one at a time at short intervals by a pistol, or the long red light of a gliding parachute flare. The lights of any other missiles fired in series of three each, with small intervals between shots, can be interpreted as a distress signal..

Small flares.

They have a diameter of 32 mm, a length of 230 mm, a mass of 190 g. The height of the sprocket is 150 meters, the burning time is 6 12 seconds.

Distress parachute flares (RPSP-40, PRB-40, RB-40Sh).

With a diameter of 44 mm, a length of 212 mm, and a mass of 390 g, they are characterized by a more intense and longer glow of the signal sprocket and a higher lift height, up to 300 meters. The color of the star is only red. The duration of the light signal may be 30 seconds or more. The radiance reaches 40 thousand candles. Under favorable weather conditions, the light signal of a large parachute flare can be seen 25-30 km from the point of delivery at night and several kilometers during the day.

Flares of colored lights.

They have a similar appearance and size to a parachute rocket, but a much wider color range. One and two-star signals of red, white, green and yellow lights. The duration of the glow is 5 to 40 seconds. There is also a special sound flare exploding at an altitude of 300 meters with a loud, gun-like sound.

Combined Flares.

Outwardly similar to flares of colored lights, but slightly larger (diameter 41 mm, length 255 mm, weight 450 g), give a sound and sound signal at a height of 200 meters five red lights burning for 5 seconds, and a howling sound lasting 8 seconds.

Order of use of signal rockets.

I will give an excerpt from the instructions for using signal parachute missiles.

1. Take the rocket in your left hand so that your fingers tightly cover the metal sleeve of the launch tube, and the palm does not cover the cap.
2. With your right hand, unscrew the cap, carefully release the extension cord with the ring, take the ring in your right hand.
3. Give the desired direction to the rocket: hold the light rockets at an angle of 50-60 degrees, signal flares at an angle of 70 to 90 degrees. In winter, the angle of fire of rockets is recommended to increase.
4. Make a sharp jerk of the exhaust cord towards yourself with your right hand along the axis of the rocket.
5. If the need to use a rocket has disappeared, then put the cord with the ring inside the rocket and screw the cap.

Signal mortar cartridges.

Now, instead of parachute flares, small mortar cartridges are sometimes used, fired using a special mechanism. They are a little larger in size than a fountain pen and, by the way, having the appearance of a fountain pen. When fired, a mortar, exploding at an altitude of 50 to 80 meters, forms a bright star that burns in the sky for about 5 seconds and can be seen at a distance of up to 7 10 km.
This type of mortirok is used in army kits.

, which, in addition to well-known cartridges of tear and noise action, is capable of shooting off light-signal charges.

It is only necessary to make sure that at least a few of these cartridges are in the equipped clip. Because the tear filling leading search rescuers to tell about themselves wonderfully. Is it just the hell of a cry for the signal charges that were forgotten at home in the nightstand. It should be borne in mind that the luminous power of such auxiliary ammunition, the height of the charge ejection and the burning time of the signal star are much lower than that of parachute lighting missiles. Therefore, it is better to have more of them and shoot them only when there is a chance that they will be noticed..

Cartridges signal night and day action (PSND).

PSNDs have a cylindrical body 172 mm long, 35 mm in diameter and 190 g in weight, and enjoy well-deserved recognition among travelers. The principle of operation is the same as that of signal missiles. The cartridge is driven by pulling the ignition cord. It is only necessary to remember: the location of the launch cord in the signal cartridge is opposite to the rocket. That is, the signal is triggered in the same direction where the cord jerks. If you forget about it and pull out the cord not from yourself, but from the rocket habit of yourself, you can greatly scorch your face.

transport for giving an alarm to a train approaching the scene of the accident. Rather, it was once used and now universally supplanted by emergency radio communications by more modern radio equipment. The torch-candle is the same raised fire, for convenience, having two retractable wire handles. They allow you to keep your hand at a safe distance from an open flame and contribute to the complete combustion of the raised fire.

If it is necessary to give a signal, the handles pressed to the body of the torch-candle with two cardboard rims are extended in full length, the top, protective cap is removed and the inside is struck along the protruding ignition wick. In the absence or wetting of the cap, the torch-candle can be lit using the side wall of the matchbox or from the flame of a match or a lighter.

The torch-candle burns for 10 minutes (which compares favorably with other false lights) with a bright red pulsating flame, and the flash is most intense in the first seconds of burning. If possible, it is better to prefer torch candles that are not afraid of moisture. There are even those that can burn when completely submerged in water. Due to its long duration, the raised fire can be used for making fires in bad weather.

Entertaining rockets, firecrackers and fireworks as signaling means in an emergency.

A few words should be said about the various Chinese and similar fireworks that appeared on mass sales and are not amenable to enumeration. Like flares and flares, all of these flares, firecrackers, beetles, butterflies, planes, lights, sparklers and the like crackers are not very reliable. First of all, by the fact that they are poorly executed and are not intended for operation in difficult meteorological conditions. Hence frequent misfires, incomplete combustion of light charges, the inability to calculate the flight path of a signal asterisk.

It is extremely difficult to transport and use such primitive pyrotechnics in real emergency conditions. But still it is possible if nothing more reliable was at hand. It is better to be able to give at least some signal than not at all. Moreover, unlike all other pyrotechnic means, holiday fireworks have two undeniable advantages of cheapness and accessibility. And as potential travelers do not discourage their acquisition, they can still not heed good advice.

When choosing such improvised signaling means, one should prefer signal rockets and pyrotechnics performed at domestic defense plants (it is most similar to real signal rockets and false fires), or pyrotechnics of industrially developed countries. Such fireworks are more reliable and safe to handle than those assembled in semi-artisan workshops in developing countries. It is better to choose cases not paper, but made at least of thick pressed cardboard with metal reinforcing rings. Cases must have maximum hardness and tightness..

And most importantly: of all the missiles, sparklers and the like for holiday pyrotechnic products intended for fireworks, it is possible to use only those that have an ORANGE-RED color signal as emergency-signaling means. Red is the common color of distress. All others, of course, can also attract attention, help to be construed as a regular salute..

All listed holiday-signaling devices should be checked before proceeding with you to the forest. Shoot and see how high the light asterisk rises, where it flies, how long it burns, how badly the weather and strong wind influence it, etc. If the light signals are not bright enough and quickly burn out, then it is better to launch signal rockets, replacing the quality with a quantity, a bush, that is, several and at once or one after the other, with short intervals so that the next one has time to flash before the previous one goes out.

Such signal consumer goods should be handled even more carefully than with combat signal missiles. It is necessary to carefully study the instructions for use and make a few training shots.

Precautions for the handling of pyrotechnic distress signals.

It must be remembered that all parachute signal missiles, PSND and some other pyrotechnic signaling devices are structurally prepared for the shot, and therefore they should be handled like a loaded weapon, taking special care. When a missile misfires, it must be kept at least 30 seconds in the position of the shot, without directing people.

All memos and instructions require that flare-up signal flares be thrown away and in the most categorical form forbidden to repair failed pyrotechnics. In the same way, they caution against the use of expired pyrotechnics (usually 3–4 years). Approaching a rocket while a fire is burning under it is CATEGORically UNACCEPTABLE! Up to the complete burning of the fire and cooling of the rocket body.

Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.
Ilyin A.

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