Radiation, radioactivity and radiation background


  • What is radioactivity and radiation?
  • What kind of radiation is it?
  • What is the effect of radiation on a person?
  • How can radiation enter the body?
  • Is radiation transmitted as a disease?
  • In which units is radioactivity measured?
  • What are isotopes?
  • What is the half-life?
  • What is radioactive around us?
  • What do radioactive items look like?
  • Is the computer a source of radiation?
  • What is a normal background radiation?
  • What are the norms of radioactivity?
  • How to protect yourself from radiation?
  • Does alcohol help from radiation?
  • When to think about radiation?

Radiation – therefore, it is therefore not terrible. The word “radiation” causes a paranoia, horror, or an incomprehensible state that strongly resembles anxiety. With direct exposure to radiation, it can develop (at this moment, anxiety develops into a panic). It turns out that radiation is deadly … but not always, sometimes even useful.

So what is it? It is a cliff to the street.

What is radioactivity and radiation?

Radioactivity of spontaneously transform (decay), accompanied by radiation of some atoms. What is associated with radioactivity.

Radiation, or ionizing radiation – It is a concept that these particles are exposed to a substance. Radiation cannot be caused by chemical reactions.

What kind of radiation is it?

There are several types of radiation.

  • Alpha particles: Relatively charged particles meaning helium nuclei.
  • Beta particles – it’s just electrons.
  • Gamma radiation It is much more penetrating power.
  • Neutrons – The electrically neutral particles are separate, where it is regulated, of course.
  • X-rays like gamma radiation, but has less energy. It is a safe and sound environment.

Ultraviolet radiation and radiation.

If you’re trying to get it, of course, you’ll find it out.

Should distinguish radioactivity and radiation. Sources of radiation –––––––––––––––––––

What is the effect of radiation on a person?

The person is called radiation. The body of energy.
Irradiation can cause metabolic disorders, radiation sickness. There is a greater effect, therefore it is much more dangerous than for adults.

As a result of this, we have never found. It has been found possible to make it.

It should be remembered.

How can radiation enter the body?

The human body reacts to radiation, not its source.
If you’re breathing, do you need to go through radioisotope diagnostics? In this case, talking about internal training.
In addition, a person can be exposed to his body.
Internal exposure is much more dangerous than external.

Is radiation transmitted as a disease?

Radiation is created by radioactive substances or specially designed equipment. It is not the same as the radiation source. Thus, a person does not become radioactive after an x-ray or fluorography examination. The film also doesn’t carry radioactivity.

For a short time, it becomes a situation. However, these factors are not limited to radiation.

Of course, you can use radioactive liquid, powder or dust. Then, there wasn’t any pollution. It is important.

In which units is radioactivity measured?

Measure radioactivity serves activity. Measured in Becquerels (Bq) that corresponds to 1 decay per second. The substance of the substance (Bq / kg) or volume (Bq / cubic meter).
There is alsoKi). This is a huge amount: 1 Ki = 37000000000 (37 * 10 ^ 9) Bq.
The activity of a radioactive source characterizes its power. So, in the Curie occurs in 37.0 billion decays per second.

As mentioned above, during these decays the source emits ionizing radiation. The substance is exposure dose. Often measured in X-rays (R). Since the use of the millionthmR) or thousandth (mr) shares of X-rays.
Action common household dosimeters based on the measurement of ionization over time. Unit of exposure dose rate – micro X-ray / hour.

The dose rate multiplied by time is called dose. The tracker traveled by car.
To assess the impact on the human body. equivalent dose and equivalent dose rate. Measured, respectively, in Sievert (Sv) and Sievert / hour (Sv / hour). In everyday life, we can assume that 1 Sievert = 100 X-ray. This dose fell down.

It can be shown for a distance of 1 meter. a distance of 10 meters – approximately 0.003 X-ray / hour. Decrease in dose rate with increasing distance It is always due to the laws of radiation propagation.

“A radioactive signal has been recorded for the media.”
It is measured in X-rays. It is the same as a sack of potatoes weighing so many minutes.
Therefore, in any case, we can talk only about the dose rate from the source. It was measured.

Further, the following considerations can be made. 10 thousand roentgens / hour is quite a large amount. It can be measured by 100 X-rays / hour and 1000 X-rays / hour with the dosimeter in the first hand! It will be very difficult to accept. We’ve been talking about 10,000 micro X-rays / hour = 10 million X-rays / hour. Such sources, for example, come up with notes, for example. Moreover, the mention of the “norm 20” can be understood as the conditional readings in the city, i.e. 20 micro X-rays / hour.

It makes it possible to see 10,000 micro-roentgen a day. micro-roentgen per hour “.

What are isotopes?

Chemical elements. It is not considered stable. radioactive atoms, who call isotopes this item. About 2000 isotopes are known, of which about 300 are stable.
For example, the following isotopes are:
hydrogen H-1 (stable)
deuterium H-2 (stable)
tritium H-3 (radioactive, half-life 12 years)

Radioactive isotopes are commonly called radionuclides.

What is the half-life?

The number of radioactive nuclei is constantly decreasing.
The number of radioactive molecules is reduced by 2 times.
Absolutely wrong The following is the interpretation of the half-life of 1 hour. “Will decay)”.

1 hour, after 2 hours – 4, after 3 hours – 8 times, etc. completely. In the same proportion. Therefore, it is possible to determine the radioactive substances.

Everyone has it radionuclide – its half-life, and billions of years. It is important to change it.
The nuclei formed during radioactive decay, in turn, can also be radioactive. So, for example, radioactive radon-222 is obliged by radioactive uranium-238.

Sometimes there are allegations that radioactive waste in storage facilities will completely disintegrate in 300 years. This is not true. It can be observed for over 300 years.

What is radioactive around us?

According to the following diagram (according to A.G. Zelenkova, 1990).

By origin, radioactivity is divided into natural and man-made.

a) Natural radioactivity
Natural radioactivity exists for billions of years, it is present literally everywhere. It’s true that it’s the same. Radioactive materials has been part of the Earth since its birth. The body of natural radiation is potassium-40 and rubidium-87, and there is no way to get rid of them.

It makes it possible to take care of the environment. natural radioactivity. It makes it possible to radiate away from human exposure.

b) Radon
Inert gas crust. Radon lingers in the foundation, floor and walls. The building materials themselves (concrete, brick, etc.) containing natural radionuclides, which are a source of radonuclides. When burning natural gas, etc.
Radon is 7.5 times heavier than air. As a result of the high-rise buildings, this is
The person receives a radiant heat wave from the radon while in a closed, unventilated room; regular airing can be reduced.
It reduces the risk of lung cancer by many times.
References for radon will help the following chart.

c) Technogenic radioactivity
Technogenic radioactivity arises from human activity.
It follows that the radionuclides occurs in the course of the study of natural background radiation. This is a combination of minerals, oil, gas, and other minerals.
For example, the radium-226, the thorium-232 and the potassium-406 adjacent ground. Existing and spent pipes, which are often classified as radioactive waste, are particularly polluted.
Cosmic radiation.
And, of course, of the nuclear energy industry.

Of course, accidental (uncontrollable) proliferation of radioactive sources is also possible: accidents, losses, theft, spraying, etc. Such situations, fortunately, are VERY RARE. In addition, their danger should not be exaggerated.
It will be 2%, while 60% will be calculated by natural radioactivity.

What do radioactive items look like?

It is more than 70 percent of the radionuclide population. It was in the 1950s – 1960s.

In addition, carriers of radioactivity can be individual items, shown below:

It is a composition of radium salts. Dose rate in the measurement “in focus” – about 2 milliRentgen / hour
Dialing and dialing hands until 1962, fluorescent due to radioactive paint. The dose rate is about 300 micro X-rays / hour.
A portable canister located inside a container containing a radioactive source (for example, cesium-137 or cobalt-60) may be located. Can be very large.
It is a scraps of stainless steel industry. Dose rate can be quite significant. It is a scraps of stainless steel industry. The dose rate can be quite significant.

Is the computer a source of radiation?

It is a mono on cathode ray tubes (CRT); displays of other types (liquid crystal, plasma, etc.) are not relevant.
Monitors, along with CRT TVs, can be considered a CRT screen glass. However, it also absorbs a significant part of the radiation. X-ray radiation.

Swedish national standards are currently recognized for all manufacturers. “MPR II”, “TCO-92”, -95, -99. These standards, in particular, regulate the electric fields and monitors.
It is not a standard for the term “low radiation,” but it can be understood. “Low emission”.

There are guidelines for your personal computer. ”, SanPiN 2.2.2 / 2.4.1340-03, allowable values ​​of all video monitors – here.

There are a number of different types of organizations that have been carried out. In all cases, the distance from a distance of 5 μR / hour, i.e. with a threefold margin fit in the permissible rate (100 μR / hour).

What is a normal background radiation?

On Earth, there are populated areas with high background radiation. For example, the city of Bogota, Lhasa, Quito, where there is a cosmic radiation.

It was also found in the field of minerals and phosphorus in India (Kerala) and Brazil (Espiritu Santo). High concentration of radium in Iran (Romser). It was not a problem to estimate the rate of mortality and mortality.

In addition, even for a specific locality, there is no “normal background” as a constant characteristic; measurements can not be obtained.
In any place, even if you haven’t been a foot. These background fluctuations can be quite significant. In the inhabited places, factors of transport, transport operations, etc. are additionally superimposed. For example, it is not necessary to use the background.

The background of the street (open area) – 8 – 12 μR / hour, in room – 15 – 20 μR / hour.

What are the norms of radioactivity?

There is a lot of norms not radioactivity – literally everything is rationed. In all cases, a distinction is made between population and staff, i.e. (employees of nuclear power plants, nuclear industry, etc.). Outside its production refers to the population. For staff and production facilities.

There are no restrictions on the use of this type of material. 3-FZ of December 5, 1996 and The Standards of Radiation Safety (NRB-99) Sanitary rules SP

This is a study of radiation standards and radiation monitoring.

a) air, food and water
For inhaled substances.
In addition to the NRB-99, “Hygienic materials and food products (SanPiN” are applied.

b) building materials
Calcium-40 (in accordance with NRB-99) is normalized.
Specific effective activity (Aeff) of building materials (class 1),
Aeff = АRa + 1.31ATh + 0.085 Ak should not exceed 370 Bq / kg,
where AR and AF are the specific activity of K-40 (Bq / kg).
Also GOST 30108-94 “Materials and products for construction are used. Determination of natural radionuclides “and GOST R 50801-95″ of wood and wood materials. For radionuclides. ”
Note: According to GOST 30108-94, Aeff m:
Aeff m = Aeff + Daeff, where DAeff is the error of the Aeff definition.

c) premises
The air is normalized:
for new buildings – no more than 100 Bq / m3, for already operated – no more than 200 Bq / m3.
In the city of Moscow apply MGSN 2.02-97 “Permissible levels of ionizing radiation and radon in construction sites.”

d) medical diagnostics
Diagnostic information.

d) computer equipment
It should not be exceeded 100 μR / hour. “Hygienic requirements for personal electronic computers and work organization” (SanPiN 2.2.2 / 2.4.1340-03).

How to protect yourself from radiation?

From the source of radiation are protected by time, distance and substance.

  • By time – It was spent on it.
  • Distance – It is a compact source (proportional to the square of the distance). If it is a distance of 1 meter, it will decrease by approximately 40 μR / hour.
  • By substance – It will not be a problem.

As for the main source of exposure radon and its decay products then regular airing can significantly reduce the load.
In addition, it’s not a problem.

Does alcohol help from radiation?

Alcohol is taken shortly before irradiation, is somewhat able to alleviate the effects of irradiation. However, its protective effect is inferior to modern anti-radiation drugs.

When to think about radiation?

Always think. It is extremely dangerous to meet the needs of people. For example, in less than 50 cases, it can be seen in the most dangerous cases. detect sources of radiation and local radioactive contamination, pits, scrap metal depots).
Nevertheless, it is in everyday life that sometimes radioactivity should be remembered. This is useful to do:

  • when buying an apartment
  • when planning construction and finishing works,
  • when choosing an apartment or house
  • when choosing pavement tiles and paving,

It should still be noted. It is a scattering pattern. 26-m place, and the first two places occupy heavy metals and chemical toxicants.

Read on:

  • Part 2. Means and methods of measurement.
  • Part 3. Doses of radiation.

Radiation. Part 1: Radioactivity and Radiation Background

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