To determine the edible mushroom cap from the description, their appearance and the structure of the fruiting body are important. Because the mycelium is found in soil or wood and looks almost the same in most types of mushrooms.
Recognition and definition of hat edible mushrooms according to the description, the shape of fruit mushroom bodies, caps and legs of edible mushrooms, identification of unfamiliar mushrooms.
The fruiting bodies of the mushrooms vary in size, shape and color, but, as a rule, consist of hats, legs and bedspreads. Some species have all of these parts, while others have only a hat and a leg. The third has only a hat – there is no bedspread, no legs. To correctly determine the edible mushroom by scientific description, it is important to know the structure and main varieties of these parts of edible mushrooms..
The mushroom cap consists of pulp, peel and gimenofora – an organ that produces spores. In most cap mushrooms, it is located on the part of the cap facing the ground. Most often, the hymenophore is a mass of radially located plates, less often it is tubular. Some species of fungi are prickly, folded, or smooth. If the hat has a well-developed pulp, it is called thick-fleshy. If the layer of pulp is thin, it is called fine meat..
The upper surface of the hat is covered with a skin, usually painted. Coloring can be very diverse, from inconspicuous camouflage shades to bright, warning ones. The peel either grows tightly to the cap, or easily detaches – this is also a sign for systematization.
Cap of mushroom.
In most cap mushrooms, the leg is attached to the center of the cap. This position of the legs is called central, it is characteristic of most fungi. Sometimes the junction is shifted to one side of the cap and is called eccentric. There are types of mushrooms with a lateral position of the leg when it is shifted to the edge of the cap. This arrangement is typical for species of mushrooms growing on wood. There are no legs for some raincoats and tree mushrooms. Like the hat, the leg is thin-fleshy and thick-fleshy.
Mantle cap and mushroom legs.
The bedspread is general and particular. A relatively small number of mushrooms have a common veil; it completely envelops the mushroom in the early stages of development, and then remains at the base of the leg in the form of a sac, also called a vagina or Volvo. The private coverlet looks like a film between the edge of the cap and the upper end of the leg. This film protects the hymenophore of young mushrooms until the spores are ripe, and then it breaks and remains in the form of a ring on the leg or tattered on the edge of the hat.
Mushroom fruit pulp.
The pulp of the fruiting body of the fungi consists of the interweaving of hyphae and the yellowish connective substance between them. If this substance is loose, then it is soft, if dense – elastic, cartilaginous. The hyphae of the fruiting bodies of some fungi decompose into cells, in which case the flesh of the fungus is brittle and brittle. The pulp is usually colored in light shades, at the break it can secrete milky juice or change color as a result of the interaction of damaged tissue with air.
Recognition and definition of hat edible mushrooms.
Recognition of mushrooms is carried out in a specific order. At first, traits distinguishing large groups of fungi are considered, then smaller ones, and lastly traits distinguishing close species. The first to consider the appearance of the fruiting body as a whole.
The forms of fruiting mushroom bodies are very diverse, but among them typical types can be distinguished:
Edible varieties of mushrooms are usually found among the club-shaped, bushy-branched, spherical and well-known hat-legged fruit bodies. Therefore, we dwell in more detail on how they look.
Club-shaped fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms.
They have a cylindrical or thickened up form. They are erect and usually grow on soil, fallen leaves or dead wood. They are thick or thin, hollow inside or solid and can reach more than 20 cm in height.
Bushy-branched fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms.
They look like groups of branched outgrowths that look like corals. They can grow from the substrate in a bunch or have a common base. The tips of the branches can be straight, pointed, blunt or in the form of twisted lobes. Some mushrooms have numerous caps at these tips. In this case, they are called branched-cap.
Rounded fruit bodies of edible mushrooms.
Characteristic for mushrooms are spherical, sack-shaped, pear-shaped, where there is no distinct leg. This also includes mushrooms with a spherical upper part and an elongated lower, which in this case is called a false leg.
Hat-fruit bodies of edible mushrooms.
The most common and most famous mushroom pickers. Although they are very diverse in shape and size, two main subtypes can be arbitrarily distinguished among them. The former do not have a sharp border between the hat and the leg, as, for example, in chanterelles. In the second, the hat and leg have a sharp boundary and usually break well on it. In addition, morel mushrooms include hatchery mushrooms..
When the type of fruiting body is determined, you can begin to consider its components – hats, legs and bedspreads. The hat has a number of characteristic features – this is the shape, color, size, surface character, especially the pulp and gimenofora. In order to properly assess these signs, you need to consider several mushrooms of the same species, preferably of different ages..
Mushrooms are variable, their appearance to some extent depends on the place of growth, on the type of forest, on the weather. In a shaded forest, for example, the mushroom hat can be paler than usual, and the stalk is thinner; in bright places, the mushroom grows strong and squat, with a darker hat. The peel, mucous in damp conditions, dries in dry weather, becomes smooth and shiny.
Edible mushrooms distinguish the following characteristic forms of hats:
Hats of young and mature edible mushrooms usually differ in shape, therefore both varieties are indicated in the description and even more if the development of the hat goes through several stages. The hats of young edible mushrooms are usually more rounded, while the hats are flatter and more developed. The structural features of the hymenophore are important for distinguishing large groups of fungi.
The hymenophore found on the caps of edible mushrooms is divided into:
There are also mushrooms, for example, raincoats, in which the hymenophore develops inside the fruiting body and in mature mushrooms looks like a fine dry powder. Smooth gimenofor characteristic of open, club-shaped and bushy fruiting bodies. The folded gimenophore looks like an accumulation of outgrowths and wrinkles located randomly or radially on the lower surface of the fruiting body. It is found in open and club-shaped fruit bodies, as well as in some hat-legged (chanterelles).
Prickly hymenophore is found in open, bushy and hat-cutaneous fruit bodies. It is located on the lower surface of the fruiting body, spiked down. Porous gimenophore occurs in edible mushrooms with various types of fruiting bodies and often forms a significant part of the cap. It is located on the underside of the cap, its pores open down.
Usually this is a homogeneous mass in which the pore tubes are located, but there are also mushrooms in which each tube is a separate cylinder that does not grow together with the others. The pores of the tubular hymenophore can vary greatly in shape and size, both within the same species and in different species. The surface may be smooth or covered with denticles or bristles..
Lamellar hymenophore is most common among cap edible mushrooms. The plates look like radial outgrowths of the hat fabric located on its lower part and extending from the place of attachment of the legs to the edge of the hat.
Important signs for determining the fungus is the connection of the hymenophore with the hat and leg. In most edible lamellar fungi, the hymenophore does not separate from the head tissue; in most tubular mushrooms, on the contrary, it is easily separated. This is noticeable if you break off the edge of the cap. In edible mushrooms with an easily separated hymenophore, a gap appears between the pulp of the hat and the tissue of the hymenophore, by which it is easily separated from the hat.
In connection with the leg, the hymenophore is divided into:
Adhered to the cartilaginous protrusion.
The type of this connection can be determined by cutting along the mushroom. The section shows that the plates or tubes of the free hymenophore do not touch the legs. The attached hymenophore is adjacent to the leg. In a runner, plates or tubes grow on the leg and descend along it. The plates adhered to the protrusion grow together around the leg into the cartilaginous ring.
The leg also has the features used in the determination of edible mushrooms. As mentioned above, the legs of the fruit bodies of the mushrooms are divided into:
Side by position relative to the hat.
In addition, they vary in form:
Narrowed to the base.
Thickened to the base.
Extended in the middle.
With a ring.
With a vagina at the base.
In the section, they are dense, loose, with cavities of various shapes inside. The pulp of the legs varies in density: from woody to loose, brittle. Important to determine are the features of the surface of the legs.
Outside, a leg of edible mushrooms happens:
With mesh pattern.
Dry or mucous.
White or dyed.
The presence or absence of bedspreads is an important feature in determining edible fungi. On mature fruit bodies, the bedspreads are torn, only their traces remain. From the common bedspread, there are scales on the cap, ring or vagina at the base of the leg. The private coverlet remains in the form of a ring in the upper part of the leg, a roller on the leg, fringe or villi along the edge of the cap.
Among private bedspreads, leathery and cobwebby are distinguished. Spider webs consist of a multitude of interwoven cobwebs, stretched between the edge of the cap and the leg, and are visible only in young edible mushrooms..
Features of the habitat of edible mushrooms.
The habitat features of edible fungi are also important for their determination. Many groups and species of edible mushrooms grow only under certain conditions and on a specific substrate, for example, only on wood of one tree species or in a particular type of forest. This is sometimes reflected in the name – boletus, boletus, boletus – although typical of most types of mushrooms.
The prevalence of any type of fungus directly depends on the prevalence of the substrate on which it grows. In the description of edible mushrooms, their places of growth and fruiting dates are always indicated.
Identification of unfamiliar mushrooms.
The definition of unfamiliar mushrooms is not an easy task and, as you might guess, responsible. An error in the definition of the fungus can lead to poisoning or even death. In this regard, it must be recalled that only well-known species should be collected. For those who want to expand their knowledge of mushrooms and learn new species, there are several rules for collecting mushrooms to determine.
Do not pick up too many unknown species of mushrooms. It should be limited to 3 to 4 species, which at this time bear fruit in bulk and may be of interest for harvesting. If there are few species, it is easier to study and remember them in detail for the future..
Take to determine several mushrooms, preferably of different ages. It is better to take mushrooms from different places to take into account their natural variability, for example, from bright and shaded places, from dry and wet.
The mushroom should be taken in its entirety, with the base of the stem, with the remains of the bedspread, if any. In addition, you need to remember well the features of the place from which the mushrooms were taken. This is the substrate on which they grew – soil, forest litter, dead or living trees – as well as species of trees and shrubs around the gathering place, relief, moisture and other features.
The mushrooms that you want to identify must be placed separately from the edible mushrooms collected in food and from other species taken to identify the mushrooms. It is best to wrap each type separately in paper or put in a separate bag.
To determine some mushrooms, you need to know the taste and smell of their pulp. To determine the taste, you only need to lightly touch the tongue of the pulp of the mushroom in the cut, but in no case take it into your mouth and chew it, especially not eat it. It is advisable to identify mushrooms on the day of their collection, because the appearance of many mushrooms varies greatly during storage.
The use of folk omens for the determination of poisonous mushrooms.
You can not use various folk signs to determine the toxicity of mushrooms. The allegations that during cooking from poisonous mushrooms the onion darkens or the silver spoon turns black are not based on anything and can lead to unhappiness. The most reliable way to avoid mushroom poisoning is to know the mushrooms well and follow the rules of their cooking.
Based on materials from the book “Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest ”.
Zvonarev N. M.