The overall survival of the group as a whole and each of its members individually depends on the equipment. The basic requirements for camping equipment are mainly reduced to its reliability and practicality..
Requirements for camping equipment, basic requirements for shoes, clothes, sleeping bags, backpacks and other equipment.
Hiking shoe requirements.
Incorrectly selected hiking shoes can lead to rubbing the foot, which will reduce the speed of the group, knock the group out of the schedule and can lead to a hungry situation in the campaign. Therefore, shoes should be brought, soft, if possible strong and tight. This applies to leather and rubber shoes..
Long transitions in rubber shoes should not be made, since in cold weather it cools very much and you can freeze your feet in it, and in the sun it heats up to plus 80 degrees. The sole should be grooved and not slippery. The most comfortable leather hiking or military boots or leather stitched sneakers.
It is preferable to bring and wear woolen socks in any weather, if not very hot. Woolen socks retain heat-shielding properties even when wet. Cotton socks are thinner, and therefore stray and rub their feet. If, however, boots are taken, it is advisable to wrap footcloths over socks.
The quantity and quality of underwear depends on the duration of the trip. But in any case, it is not advisable to wear and bring synthetic underwear. It is either very hot or cold.
Experience shows that matches are the most reliable tool for making fire, in comparison with any type of lighter. The only drawback is matches are afraid of moisture. For this purpose, each participant in the campaign should have at least 2-3 matchboxes, placed separately in 1-2 plastic bags.
The neck of the packages must be tied and tightened with an elastic band. You can put each box inside the baby ball and tie it with a thread, but so that it is easily untied. For reliability, you can wrap several matches in plastic wrap and put under clothes, closer to the body. As such, reserve matches will be dry.
You can store matches without a box in a box from under a film or in a glass vial, but at the same time you need to fill the neck with paraffin. It is convenient to take phosphorous hunting matches on a hike. They give a stronger flame and burn 3 times longer than usual. However, one must beware of such matches of Chinese origin. One of the tourists tried to light such a Chinese hunting match. After striking, a combustible substance stuck to the palm of your hand, continuing to burn. The result was a 2nd degree burn.
As a complement to matches, you can grab a magnifying glass. If there are no matches in sunny weather, you can use it to light a fire by directing focused light to the kindling. If the kindling is wet, it is better to have 2-3 tablets of dry alcohol with you.
Among the huge variety of lights, many of them are of little use for tourist expeditionary activities. First of all, do not take battery and inertia lights. The former in forest conditions, as a rule, have nowhere to recharge, while the latter, when using, must always be held in your hand for lighting.
The headlamps are well established. They do not occupy hands, but give little light at a great distance. They are better applicable in caving. Optimal is the presence of two lights. One is used for working at short distances, in a camp or in a tent, and the second is a high beam, for movement in the dark.
Sleeping Bag Requirements.
Sleeping bags should be synthetic or downy. It is desirable that the sleeping bags were not cocoon type, but in the form of blankets with zippers. If necessary, such bags are conveniently connected to each other and make a collective bag. In cold weather, in such a bag it is much more convenient and warmer to accommodate a group of 2-3-4 people. In addition, a sleeping bag, structurally made in the form of a blanket, is always easier to dry than a cocoon.
When you buy a sleeping bag, then the documentation for it should have numbers showing the maximum temperature, comfort temperature and minimum temperature. These indicators are the main parameters of sleeping bags and show in what temperature framework a person will feel comfortable in a sleeping bag, undressing to linen.
For example, if -18 0 +18 is written on the sleeping bag tag, it means that at a temperature above plus 18 degrees it becomes hot in the sleeping bag, that undressing to the laundry at zero degrees will make you comfortable and warm, and at a temperature below minus 18 degrees, if If you risk sleeping only in linen, then you risk freezing. It is clear that if you orient your hiking activities in the summer, then the comfort temperature should start from 5 … 0 degrees, taking into account May or autumn frosts. Naturally, for winter conditions and mountain hikes, the comfort temperature of the sleeping bag should start at minus 10-15.
As a rule, sleeping bags of general use are a fairly large part of camping equipment. For novice travelers, they sometimes take up to half the total volume of the backpack. To save space, sleeping bags should be folded as tight as possible, additionally tying them with transverse belts. For the same purposes, the industry produces compression bags, allowing to reduce the volume of the sleeping bag by half. Remember that at home, the sleeping bag must be stored in a freely folded state..
By their purpose, backpacks are school, city, walking for small trips, and hiking for serious expeditionary and tourist events. It is about the last category of backpacks that will be discussed below. The main parameter of a backpack is its volume, measured in liters. The smallest backpacks, usually not used in serious trips, include backpacks up to 60 liters.
For everyday tourist expeditionary practice and medium-range hiking, backpacks with a volume of 85-130 liters are used. The weight of these backpacks, depending on the equipment they have in them, is 15-50 kg, for women it is recommended not more than 30-35 kg. Net weight of the backpack should not exceed 3 kg, optimal 1.5-2 kg.
To conveniently carry such a burden, especially over long distances, the backpack should be equipped with a rigid back with a special unloading system. The bulk of the backpack should not fall solely on the shoulders. To unload the shoulder girdle on the backpacks of a modern design, an adjustable system of tensioning the straps and the unloading belt is used.
The unloading belt should be wide, not less than 10 cm, and soft. Be careful: some backpack models come with wide and rigid unloading belts. The use of such a belt often leads to the fact that when tilting the body, this belt pinches the skin at the waist and causes sharp pain.
The buckle of the unloading belt should be adapted for auto-reset, that is, for quick, with one movement of the hand, release from the backpack when a person falls. It is best to use backpacks with a unloading system of full adjustment, which includes the ability to adjust the distance between the unloading belt and straps depending on the height and anatomical features of a person.
Thus, a properly adjusted backpack should transfer most of the load to the hips, and less to the shoulders. This is logical, since the pelvic bones of a person are much stronger than the bones of the shoulder girdle. Pay attention to the fabric from which the backpack is made. Some backpacks are made from special, dense, moisture resistant materials. Typically, these backpacks are quite heavy. At the same time, the industry produces backpacks from lighter fabrics, but equipped with lightweight pressure bags that reliably protect the backpack from any rainfall. If such a pressure bag is not included, then they are issued separately for various volumes of backpacks..
When choosing a backpack, pay attention to the presence of pockets on its surface. In principle, the more there are, the better. They are reserved for camping equipment, which should be at hand and easily accessible flashlight, map, water tank, small first aid kit, notebook, pens and the like. Some backpacks use hinged pockets, which can be removed if necessary. A roomy hood, the top pocket of this backpack, fully compensates for the lack of side pockets.
Based on materials from the book Stalker Handbook. ABC of survival. Vadim Chernobrov.