Rescue kits is a survival tool, they include various untouchable stocks (NZ), emergency laying, kits, kits. The name is not important, the content is really more important here. I will not describe emergency and rescue kits and special-purpose kits (space, aviation, military, special forces and others). They are developed by specialists taking into account the specifics of the destination, place of operation and qualifications of the people for whom they are intended, and usually have narrow application.
Copy their amateur travelers one to one is unlikely to succeed. For example, the NZ of a military pilot includes cartridges for Makarov’s pistol and a license plate, considered cold steel, a machete. In addition, the aviation NAZ is designed for passive survival, because the pilot is looking for all the rescue forces of the district, and therefore has excess, over 10 kg, weight and not the most convenient form for carrying. If the reader ever has to deal with such sets, then only with the load in the form of one or another exotic profession (pilot, army scout, astronaut), during the course of which he will be familiarized with the items included in the kit and taught how to handle them.
Rescue kits that are included in the emergency kit, the purpose of its items, components and equipment.
An unexpected acquaintance with civilian emergency kits is more likely that anyone can get into a sea or air disaster. Such emergency rescue kits, designed more for casual amateur passengers than for professionals, are quite simple. The list of items and instructions for their use are usually applied on the outer packaging of the kit and on the items themselves. So the difficulties with their use will not be enough to carefully read the instructions.
For example, an emergency container for a 10-seater marine life raft consists of:
personal NAZ. We will choose this path.
Rescue kits or emergency supplies.
So what should an inviolable stock consist of? It all depends on the specific conditions of climate travel, geography, number of participants, time of year and objective and subjective (I wanted one, but I got, alas, another) reasons. It is understood that a kit for use in the desert cannot be identical to a kit designated for polar travel. Such external conditions dictate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the emergency stock. I will try to list only the most universal, multifunctional, applicable in almost any climatogeographic zone and, which I consider important, not the most scarce items, usually included in emergency rescue kits.
The list of possible products that are often included in emergency rescue kits, I do not give here, since this is a matter of individual taste of each person. Personally, I believe that products in emergency stays of amateur travelers are secondary, because if you don’t deny yourself anything, then a bloated food NAZ will simply not fit in, and a small one can provide a person with normal nutrition only for a very short period of time. Much more important is the presence in the group of means of emergency signaling, orientation, fire production, hunting and fishing tools, medicines, etc. An untouchable food supply can at any time be distinguished from general food supplies. In general, according to a proverb: It is better to have a net available than a one-time fish!
Dry fuel, plexiglass.
It is intended for making campfire and signal fires, heating shelters, melting snow, warming water and food during emergency nights, in exceptional cases when there are no other light sources for lighting. For example, to look at a map or some small piece of equipment. In this case, it is advisable to make a reflector out of the foil in order to enhance the light efficiency of the weak flame tongue.
Matches of enhanced combustion (windproof, hunting).
They are necessary for making bonfires, scaring away predatory animals, cauterizing the bite of poisonous arachnids, and auxiliary lighting. At night, in the absence of pyrotechnic signaling devices, for alarm.
Silicon for lighters.
It is advisable to invest in one package with matches and with a small holder making it easier to work with them. If necessary, a pebble of silicon will help to make fire by carving sparks.
Alarm night and day cartridge (PSND).
It is necessary to give alarms to airplanes, ships, rescue groups, etc. (fire, smoke), to indicate the direction of the wind when landing a rescue helicopter, aircraft (smoke), protection from predatory animals (fire), fire production.
Designed for alarming aircraft, ships, rescue groups. It can be used to attract fish with the reflected light of the moon and as a household mirror.
Needed for sound signals. A whistle is heard 2 3 times further than a scream. It can be used to scare away animals. The whistle should be as loud as possible and even act just pulled out of the water.
Adrianov’s compass, or liquid.
It’s best to use a liquid compass with a small magnifying lens on the case that can be useful for fire.
Scabbard machete knife.
In emergency rescue kits, knives made of stainless steel with a sawtooth notch on the back of the blade and a rotary handle that increases the working length of the blade are preferred. In addition to its direct purpose, it can be used for protection against predatory animals, making bricks in the construction of winter block shelters, cutting nast, ice, thick branches (sawtooth notch from the blunt side), cutting paths in the thicket, digging earthen shelters, self-detention on snow and ice slopes, making a great spearhead, producing fire by carving sparks and as a universal trench, carpentry and locksmith tool.
Can opener safe.
It is desirable for opening cans, bottles. Can be used as a spinner in an improvised fishing tackle. In small emergency rescue kits where there is a machete knife, it does not fit.
Bow saw in a case.
It is necessary for the construction of capital shelters, wooden rafts, and the preparation of firewood for bivouac and signal fires. It can be used for distress signal reflection from the polished surface of the canvas sun glare and protection from small predatory animals (rather in a passive form, that is, containment of the beast with a sharp blade set forward). Theoretically, based on the principle, it’s better than what it can in any way serve for the manufacture of an impromptu safety harness.
To do this, you need to wrap the saw in a case with several layers of dense fabric or clothing and tie the ends, through the holes, at the chest level. The saw blade is strong enough to support the weight of a fallen person. It is possible to apply such a harness only for tension insurance, used for crossing rivers, drawing a person onto the slopes. Of course, it is not suitable for mountain insurance. In small-sized emergency rescue kits, it is better to put flexible saws of the string type. Only real ones, like those used in special forces, and not cheap, brittle and therefore completely useless fakes.
Fishing set. Hooks Fishing line. Arrowheads.
The set includes various fishing hooks from No. 3 to No. 14, tees, spinners, artificial bait (caterpillars, worms, flies, dragonflies, grasshoppers), mormyshki, leashes for spinners, sinkers (preferably thin sheet lead). About which hooks, baits and baits to prefer, should be read in the reference fishing literature, in relation to the place of the proposed trip (sea, lake, river) and the variety of fish that lives there. Universal gear is less catchy than individually selected. Emergency rescue kits include fishing lines of various sections and colors, nylon thread.
Sometimes 1 2 fishing rods are assembled. The set is intended for catching sea and freshwater fish, seabirds, crayfish, lizards, snakes. Fishing line for the manufacture of a bowstring for hunting bows, arranging hunting snails and traps for small game and poultry, repairing clothes and shoes, drying fish, mushrooms, fruits, finally, just as an auxiliary rope used for domestic purposes. Harpoons-arrows in rescue kits are made of solid, preferably stainless steel grades. Designed for the manufacture of arrows of hunting bows, harpoons, prison and protection from wild animals.
Metal wire different from 0.5 to 1.0 mm of different stiffness.
Designed for tying harpoons to jails and metal tips for bow arrows, repairing shoes and clothes, making fishing hooks, small slingshots, leashes for baubles, bonfire hooks, wick frames for makeshift candles and grease lamps. But the main purpose, of course, is hunting for the device of snares, springs, traps and other things. The suitability of the wire for various purposes should be verified experimentally..
Thin steel rods.
Needed for cooking game, fish, mushrooms, shoe repair, making arrowheads, fishing hooks, small slingshot bullets, bonfire hooks and like a knitting wire.
Slingshot with spare rubber.
Designed for hunting small game and poultry, but can be used as a medical tourniquet, clothing gum, making self-arrows. Rubber of the right quality is selected experimentally, checking for elasticity, maximum stretch and strength.
You can use soft insulation, removed from a thin electrical wire, but a much more functional rubber tube. The tube will facilitate the extraction of water from hard-to-reach sources. Rubber rings will simplify the attachment of the fishing line to the float and the sealing of plastic bags. It can be used as a rope, for example, to press the sleeves on the wrists and legs on the ankles while driving in deep snow. If the tube is sufficiently viscous, it can be used to make small slingshots..
Needles of various sizes.
Necessary for the repair of clothing and shoes. If they are pre-magnetized, they can serve as arrows for homemade compasses. Thicker needles can be used as hunting arrowheads.
It is used for cooking in improvised saucepan boxes with the loss of dishes, protecting the head from the cold, rain, reflection of the sun, if worn over a hat, warming your legs, for alarms, making primitive signal mirrors, primitive radar reflectors, fishing lures. In the case when it is impossible to choose a universal (thin and at the same time strong) foil, you can take several types of it, of various thickness and strength. Small packs use only thin food foil.
The molten stearin is poured into wide (like boot cream jars) containers, a wick is installed in the center. The larger the jar and the thinner the wick, the longer the candle burns. The brightness of the light is regulated by the thickness of the wick. For convenience, you can make two wicks of different thicknesses and light them alternately depending on what is required: bright light or economical consumption of stearin.
The candle is used to heat snow shelters, melt snow, warm water and heat food during cold emergency nights, lighting. Facilitates the making of bonfires. It can be used to seal the necks of various containers (bottles, vials with drugs, etc.). Metal jars from used candles can be used for making new candles, storing small items, fishing bait, making spinners and even as an impromptu signal mirror.
Usually made of thin nylon fabric and straightened with a thin twisted branch or wire rolled into a circle. The front mesh should be as small as possible so as not to miss not only mosquitoes, but also the vulture, and be sure to have a dark color that does not interfere with the eyes. The mosquito net is indispensable in areas teeming with mosquitoes, horseflies, and vultures. Protects the face from bees, ticks.
She covers her head from solar radiation, snow. It can be used for filtering water, packing and transferring things, food supplies, etc. In a pinch, for warming your legs, as additional foot wraps; to protect the respiratory tract from smoke (during forest fires), sand (during hurricanes in the steppe, desert); as a net for catching small fish and insects used as fishing bait; for additional protection of hands from cold, dirt, snow.
Thin woolen hat, bright red.
It is necessary to protect the head from cold, snow, solar radiation, to warm the limbs. It can be used to protect the respiratory tract from smoke, sand, dust, as a net for catching small fish, insects, and also as a container for carrying things. Coloring facilitates the search for the victim. Woolen threads pulled from a hat for making artificial fishing heads and candle wicks. Small styling not included.
To protect hands from the cold, snow, solar radiation, dirt, as well as to protect the respiratory tract, filter water, warm the lower limbs, and store and carry small items. Woolen threads for making artificial bait. Small styling not included.
Made of thick tinted plastic. To protect the eyes from direct and reflected (from snow, water, sand) solar radiation, midges, dust, sand. Small styling not included.
It is completed depending on geography and travel conditions.
Potassium permanganate or another drug with similar properties.
For water disinfection and medical purposes.
In addition to the direct purpose of providing first aid for filtering water, protecting the eyes from sunlight, face and head from insects, solar radiation. When twisting or braiding are used as an auxiliary, for household purposes, rope. They can be useful for making wicks of fat lamps, candles, lamps, collecting small waterfowl insects, fish fry used as bait, making nets, protecting the respiratory tract and warming limbs.
The memo should include basic information regarding self-rescue, first aid, communication and signaling, in relation to the area where you have to travel.
Diary and pencil.
Filling out a diary is a prerequisite for self-rescue for victims of distress! The first page of the diary should indicate: the number and time of the first entry, last name, first name, patronymic of the participants, the alleged location of the affected group, briefly describe the situation in which they were found, the alleged location of other groups or individuals who need help, the decision made and further actions. For a group, each participant’s data.
In subsequent entries, it is necessary to indicate the date, time, expected and overcome route, direction of movement (azimuth), your physical and moral condition, what, how much, when you ate and drank, painful changes in the body and psyche (for quick diagnosis of a possible disease, emergency assistance) that occurred during the day of the event. The diary must be filled at least once a day!
Correct filling of the diary facilitates the work of the rescue team in providing medical and other assistance, finding other victims, and analyzing the incident. In addition, at your death, he can help save your still living comrades. In extreme cases, a diary and a pencil can be used to make bonfires, a diary for warming the legs. It is preferable to use a chemical pencil, with which it can be applied to surrounding objects (stones, trees), marks that are noticeable from afar.
Balloons (orange and blue).
It can be used to seal water-consuming objects and necks of various containers. For crossing over water barriers. Three balls stuck into each other should be inflated to half the volume, wrapped in a cover (bag, jacket, pants) and swim, holding in front of you. In a tightly stitched case, slightly smaller than the balls, they are able to withstand a person’s jump from a meter height and not burst!
You can use balls as a signaling tool, tying to the tops of trees towering above the forest, trying to get a well-readable geometric figure, such as a triangle. In two or three balls stuck into each other, water can be transferred and stored. In winter, melt the snow by stuffing a ball full of it under the clothes. In addition, balls can be used to protect damaged and bandaged fingers, making artificial fishing bait.
Plastic bags or metallized film bags.
Useful for sealing water-fearing objects, melting snow, ice, protecting hands from the cold, wind, precipitation, warming the legs for this, the bag must be put on between two socks; head protection from precipitation, wind, snow. On the bags you can cross the water barrier, for which they can be stuffed with reeds, branches, dry grass and tied to your chest as an impromptu life jacket. In a plastic bag, you can boil water if you put it in a dug hole and lower the heated stones on the fire.
It can be used to seal water-consuming objects, as a signaling means (cut, deployed in a plane and used as a primitive signaling mirror), for storing bait, making homemade candles, baubles.
Note about emergency rescue kits.
All items included in the emergency rescue kits should be tested in practice, repeatedly tested, if necessary duplicated. An emergency kit from a complete set of the listed items will weigh 0.6-1.5 kg, depending on the quantity and quality of the items included in it. A stripped-down set (without pyrotechnics, a machete knife, etc. heavy items) can lose weight up to 150,200 grams.
We must strive to ensure that the packaging of the set, in addition to the main, functional, purpose (storage of items), can be used as a life jacket (positive buoyancy is ensured by sealing each item of the set), heat-insulating bedding, rugs, additional insulation of clothing and other things. The material for the manufacture of packaging sets and kits is better to take waterproof, bright colors. In addition to the above, exotic and not always accessible items would be useful in emergency styling. I have no right to recommend them for use, but I should mention them.
Exotic and not always accessible items in emergency sets.
Signal mortar cartridges.
With dimensions and mass many times smaller than that of parachute missiles, they are close to them in terms of efficiency and lethal force. Such cartridges, stored up to 10 pieces in one cartridge and fired with a fountain pen-sized starter, can be used not only for emergency signaling, but also for hunting. Perhaps that is why in our country they are considered to be firearms. Hence the difficulty with their acquisition.
Various alkaloid and other stimulants in emergency rescue kits.
With the help of which a person can be in working condition for several days without sleep, food and rest. The first to invent such a physiological whip was the American Indians, continuously chewing coca leaves during hard work and transitions. The infamous drug cocaine is made from them. Now, funds with a similar effect are used in some military special forces. Our travelers are forced to be content with less exotic infusions of ginseng root and golden root, as well as caffeine and other (I can not say that harmless) drugs.
Chemicals in emergency kits.
Intended for fish slumping in stagnant and low-flowing water bodies. A few tens of grams of such a drug once and for all solve the problem of providing fish products. They are either synthesized chemically or isolated from the plants of the roots of the Derris pod, seeds of the Barrington tree, the stems and roots of the desert rose (adenium), the bulbs of the soap plant, the stems and roots of the goat-litter, etc. The method of their application is simple and very effective.
A small river is blocked by a dam from stakes driven into the bottom, after which the poisonous substance is bred in a bank and poured into a river stream. Asleep on an area of several tens or even hundreds of meters, the fish floats to the surface and gathers near the dam. It remains only to collect. For obvious reason, I do not give a recipe for such a poisonous substance. In the same way, they turn into a deadly weapon any bullet from a slingshot or a plain arrow of a home-made bow, poisons applied to their surface of natural or artificial origin.
Thus, by blowing poisoned microbirds from hollow wooden tubes or firing arrows from bows, most African and South American primitive hunters still hunt. They use some types of plants, poisonous snakes, spiders and frogs, the mucus on the skin of which exceeds the cobra venom many times over in its striking characteristics as a source for poisoning! And in our country, you can find plants that can be used for such not very humane purposes..
Light Beta Crystal.
Which gives not very bright, but sufficient for reading a map or lighting a small space light. He naturally does not require batteries or recharging. This crystal is expensive even by the standards of Western travelers, but due to its small weight, size (about the average size of a coin) and durability it is becoming more and more popular. By the way, in Japan for the same purpose they use luminous bacteria living in small sealed cones.
Emergency rescue kits.
Made of polymer film coated with a thin metallized layer. Such bags, due to the reflection of the heat rays emitted by human heat, keep the temperature well and are used by professional travelers for spending the night in the snow.
Based on the book The Great Encyclopedia of Survival in Extreme Situations.