Mushrooms are salted in wooden tubs or in glass jars. Mushrooms can also be salted in an enameled bowl with intact enamel. Tin, galvanized and clay dishes are corroded by brine and form harmful substances that can poison mushrooms, so it can not be used for salt.
Salting of mushrooms in a cold, dry and hot way, preparing tubs, packing in containers, features of the process of pickling mushrooms.
Prepared for salting mushrooms containers should be clean and free from odors. Kadki before salting must be soaked so that they do not pass water. Only tubs from deciduous trees — birch, oak, linden, alder, and aspen — are suitable for salting. New oak tubs need to be soaked for 12-15 days, changing the water every 2-3 days. To remove tannins from wood, otherwise they will cause blackening of the mushrooms and brine.
The used kadka should be thoroughly washed and steamed with boiling water mixed with caustic soda (50 g per 10 l of water). They can also be steamed with boiling water with the addition of juniper or heather. If glass or enameled containers are used for salting, they must be cleaned and dried..
Mostly lamellar mushrooms go into the saline: breasts, trawls, saffron milk mushrooms, russula and other milk cakes. Salt and tubular mushrooms, usually ceps, but they turn out to be much tastier if they are harvested with pickled or dried.
Mushrooms are usually salted in three ways: cold, dry and hot. Rural residents often use cold and dry pickling of mushrooms. Citizens – hot pickling mushrooms.
Cold pickling of mushrooms is a fermentation, because the preservative in it is not salt, but lactic acid formed during fermentation. Cold-salted mushrooms reach their preparedness no earlier than one and a half to two months, but they are tastier and better stored than hot-salted mushrooms.
Hot-pickled mushrooms are ready to eat in just a few days, but they are soft and do not withstand long-term storage. In cities where there are no conditions for cold salting, this method is preferable.
Cold pickling mushrooms.
Here, apparently, it is necessary to recall that cold mushrooms cannot be salted, which need boiling to remove toxic substances. Mushrooms containing bitter and caustic juice, in many cooking instructions, it is recommended to soak for several days or boil. However, with prolonged soaking, they lose not only bitterness, but also useful substances, and in the summer heat they can rot.
Experience shows that with proper salting in the cold way, the bitterness from these mushrooms disappears even without soaking, and they turn out tastier than salted ones in the hot way. If it is decided to soak the mushrooms, this should be done in a cold place. Putting on top of them a flat coating with a load sufficient to completely immerse them in water, and change the water 3-4 times a day.
Suitable for cold salting are breasts, white and black loads, saffron milk mushrooms, trawls, earrings, most russules. You can salt them both separately and with a mixture. If possible, soft and brittle mushrooms (traps, whites, mushrooms, russules) are best salted separately from strong and fleshy ones (breasts, podgruzki, valui). Because the former are salted faster, and the latter more slowly.
Preparing mushrooms for cold salting.
Mushrooms intended for salting should be sorted out, cleaned of garbage, pour clean water and leave for 1-3 hours. So that adhered particles of debris and dirt get wet. Then the mushroom caps should be washed off the adhering dirt and rinsed thoroughly in clean water.
Stacking mushrooms in a cold salting container.
Before laying mushrooms on the bottom of the container, pour a layer of salt. Leaves of blackcurrant, cherry and oak, leaves and horseradish root, dill stalks are placed on top of it. To give mushrooms a better taste and aroma. The legs of the mushrooms are cut at a distance of 0.5 cm from the cap. Stack mushrooms tightly, with their caps down, in layers of 6–10 cm thick. Each layer of mushrooms is sprinkled with salt and spices (bay leaf, pepper, garlic).
Take 35-50 g of salt per kilogram of fresh mushrooms. Or, according to old standards, one and a half to two glasses of salt in a bucket of mushrooms. From above, you need to cover the mushrooms with a layer of leaves of currant, horseradish, cherry, dill, to protect them from mold, which can appear on the surface of the brine. Then the mushrooms are covered with a wooden circle, a load is put on it (oppression, oppression) and the container is covered with a clean rag.
For oppression, it is best to take a stone that does not dissolve in brine. Do not use bricks, calcareous and dolomite stones, metal rusting objects. If there is no suitable stone, you can take an enameled pan with intact enamel and fill it with something heavy. The severity of the oppression should be selected so as to squeeze the mushrooms and displace air from them, but not crush them.
The process of pickling mushrooms in the cold way.
After 1-2 days, the mushrooms will settle and give juice. The whole process of salting takes a half to two months, then the mushrooms can be used as food. The temperature in the room during salting of mushrooms should not exceed 6-8 degrees. Otherwise, they may become sour or moldy, but should not fall below 0 degrees, because at low temperatures, pickling is slower. If the mushrooms freeze, they blacken and become tasteless. It is best to store ready-to-eat mushrooms at a temperature of 0-4 degrees.
The brine should completely cover the mushrooms. If there is little brine or for some reason it has leaked out, you need to fill the mushrooms with a 10% solution of salt in boiled water. In case of mold, remove it from the container walls with a clean cloth moistened with a solution of salt or vinegar, and also rinse in this solution a wooden circle and oppression.
If the tub is not full, you can add mushrooms collected later. They need to be cleaned, washed, trimmed legs. Then remove the oppression and the upper layer of leaves, lay the mushrooms on top of the salted ones, as described above. Cover them again with a layer of leaves so that they completely cover the mushrooms, and return the oppression to its place.
Dry pickling of mushrooms.
This method is mainly salted with mushrooms and russula. It is characterized by the fact that the mushrooms are not washed before salting, but carefully cleaned of forest debris and wiped with a damp cloth. Otherwise, this method is similar to cold. Do not put herbs and spices in saffron milk so as not to repel their natural taste and aroma.
After cleaning, they are placed in a container and sprinkled with salt (35-50 g of salt per 1 kg of mushrooms). As with the cold method, stacked mushrooms are covered with a wooden circle. They put oppression on it and cover the container with a clean rag. After 1-2 days they give juice.
Hot pickling of mushrooms.
Fresh mushrooms containing toxic substances (morels, cobwebs, honey mushrooms) can be salted only in this way. It is suitable for dense, fleshy mushrooms with coarse pulp, making them softer from cooking, and for mushrooms containing a large amount of bitterness, which is removed by boiling. These are violinists, pepper breasts, bitters, rubella, valuys, govorushki and some russula. Hot varieties also salted all varieties of tubular mushrooms.
Mushrooms prepared for salting should be boiled in clean salted water. Then let the water drain and cool. Boiling time depends on the type of mushroom. Boiled mushrooms are boiled for 10-15 minutes. Coarse and bitter mushrooms – 20-30 minutes. Conditionally edible mushrooms should be boiled for a time sufficient to separate toxic substances (at least 20 minutes), and then rinse thoroughly several times with cold water.
For soft mushrooms with delicate flesh, such as mushrooms, traps, not bitter russula, blanching for 5-8 minutes is enough. When the mushrooms dry out a little, they need to be salted in the same way as described in the cold method. Hot salted mushrooms are suitable for food after 10-15 days.
Based on materials from the book “Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest ”.
Zvonarev N. M.