The human body is almost 2/3 composed of water. Dehydration of the body by only a few percent leads to disruption of its vital functions. And over 10% causes deep violations that can lead to his death. Therefore, in conditions of autonomous existence, especially in areas with a hot climate, with limited water resources or in their absence, the search and production of water becomes a problem of paramount importance.
Search and production of water in the forest, desert and steppe, the use of water sources for survival in extreme conditions and emergency situations.
Every day, the human body loses 2-3 liters of water. Loss of fluid through breathing and sweating increases with work intensity and fever. An adult can live without food for three weeks, and without water only three days, so you do not have to wait until the water runs out to begin replenishing its supplies. A certain amount of water must be stored as an emergency reserve and constantly seek new sources of clean drinking water.
In temperate and cold climates, finding and extracting water is often straightforward. The abundance of open reservoirs and snow cover make it possible to timely meet the needs of the body, to create the necessary reserves of water for drinking and cooking. Only in some cases it is necessary to use natural signs to exit to the water source (paths laid by animals, usually leading to water, moist soil of lowlands).
Search and extraction of water in the forest.
Trees with their roots can take moisture from a water-bearing layer of soil located at a depth of 15 meters or more, but you can’t get to the bottom of it. In forests growing in the lowlands, along sea coasts and in river valleys, the groundwater level is close to the surface. Even a small pit usually becomes a good source of water there. In the absence of a nearby reservoir, water can be produced according to the method proposed by the Australian Briand Kovadzh.
birch sap. To do this, several small holes located one above the other are drilled or cut in the form of the letter V in the bark of an old birch. Twigs or leaflets folded into the groove are inserted into them, designed to drain the protruding juice. At the base of the tree is a container for collecting dripping juice. It is estimated that in a day from five birches it is possible to drip in this way up to 20 liters of juice! In the same way, you can extract juice from maple or vine.
The collection and production of water can be carried out using tissue. Tie it around your calves and ankles and walk along wet vegetation. The water extracted in this way can be squeezed out or sucked out of the fabric. When it rains, make a catchment area with a tree cloth. Water flowing along the trunk is absorbed by the fabric and drips into the container, substituted from below. In the early morning, you can drive clean linen or cotton cloth across the grass and then squeeze it.
Search and production of water in the desert or steppe.
Searching and extracting water in the desert is difficult, but not as hopeless as it might seem at first glance. First of all, look for signs of water in these areas. These include: the direction of flight of birds, the location of vegetation, the converging directions of animal paths. The proximity of groundwater is sometimes indicated by swarming of midges and mosquitoes, observed after sunset, bright green spots of vegetation among vast expanses of sand.
In search of water, some plants often help. Rogozes, willows, elderberries, chytons and solyanka grow only in those places where groundwater comes close to the surface. Find these plants and dig in that place. In the African deserts, a date palm serves as a pointer to the underground water source. In the deserts of Central and Central Asia, the poplar poplar plays this role. This small, slender tree is a kind of living pump, pumping moisture out of an aquifer. Its light green upper leaves are wide and narrowed by a heart to the ends, as in a real field. But the lower long, narrow ones resemble willow in shape.
A good water indicator is a wild watermelon. Its small green balls, reminiscent of the color of an ordinary watermelon, dozens lie among the dried lashes. And although even a starving traveler is unlikely to dare to taste these bitter fruits like hina, their presence in the desert is a sign of desired moisture. Typically, an aquifer is located somewhere at a very shallow depth.
Sometimes it’s worth digging deeper in the lowlands of an old dried-up riverbed or in a hollow at the foot of a dune from the leeward side. At first, at a depth of one or two meters, dark, damp sand will appear, and after a while, the dug hole will gradually fill the groundwater. Desert experts believe that the higher and bare the dune chains, the deeper the hollows between them, the greater the chances of success.
Desert residents are aware of the location of non-drying open water sources in the lowlands. Sometimes they mask the wells with piles of dry brushwood folded on top of them, sometimes they cover them with covers flush with the ground. But to hide the water source so that it could not be found is impossible. It can always be calculated by trodden paths going from housing, place of work or grazing, by individual tracks, by vegetation and insects feeding on accidentally spilled water.
In arid regions, water is most likely to meet where it flowed in the winter-spring period in the beds of dry rivers, at the bottom of which turned into dry valleys of reservoirs, in lowering relief. The probability of finding a source of water or nearby groundwater is the higher, the more succulent, dense and overgrown vegetation you observe surrounded by shallow, sluggish and burgeoning.
If these plants look better, then their roots are in the aquifer. Sometimes in such a place it is quite enough to dig a small hole so that it will soon be filled with water. In deserts and semi-deserts, water supplies are also replenished with the help of solar film capacitors.
With limited water supplies, especially in hot climates, where the body loses a lot of fluid with sweat, dehydrates, it is very important to reduce sweating. This can be achieved by protecting yourself from direct solar radiation with the help of a simple sunshade, limiting physical activity in the hot time of the day, moisturizing clothes. To relieve the situation of a person in distress in rocky deserts, dew, which falls abundantly in the morning, helps. If you stack pebbles or rubble in a pile, then in the morning you can collect some moisture that has settled on their surface.
Partially used materials from books:
Man in extreme environmental conditions. V.G. Volovich.
Great encyclopedia of survival in extreme situations. A. Ilyichev.