Security in the city. Fire protection

There is a fire inspection. Every large enterprise has its own fire safety service. However, even in the most cultured countries, during the fires.

Table of contents:

Flammable solids
Flammable liquids
Combustible gases
Combustible dust
Fire prevention
Fire prevention
Preparing to extinguish a fire in a dwelling
Preparation for evacuation
Fire current
Fire extinguishing
Protection against technical disasters


There are four necessary conditions fire:

  1. Combustible material
  2. Oxidizer (most often air oxygen)
  3. Ignition source
  4. Fire spread

Burning is not always accompanied by a flame. Organic substances containing more than 60% of carbon and carbon compounds are emitting oxides of aluminum, potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, sodium, etc. Incomplete substance, carbon monoxide, vapors of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, etc. For example, when burning celluloid, hydrocyanic acid is formed. Substances are divided into non-flammable, slow-burning and combustible. After the removal of this source. Fire hazard flammable substances increase as they grind.

Flammable solids

Mineral building materials on an organic binder (starch, bitumen, etc.), which is less than 6% of the mass, are non-combustible. If the organic binder is from 7 to 15% by weight, the materials are slow-burning. Flammable substances such as ignite, for example, from a spark or a hot electric wire. Some substances are liable to spontaneous combustion. It occurs after the conditions of weak heat removal. For example, wet grain, oiled rags will spontaneously ignite.

Flammable liquids

It should be noted that the vapors of all flammable liquids are heavier than air and therefore accumulate. It is the temperature of the diesel fuel (diesel oil), The formation of a substance is not necessary for stable combustion. It’s a hazardous situation. The following is the flash point of some common liquids:

Liquid Flash point
Gasoline A-76 -36
White alcohol 33
Acetone -18
Turpentine 34
Dichloroethane 9
Kerosene 48
Ethanol 13
Sunflower oil 119

Combustible gases

In the case of gas limits,

Gas Lower limit,% Upper limit,%
Ammonia (CH3) 15.0 28.0
Acetylene (C2H2) 2.0 81.0
Bhutan (C4H10) 1.8 9.1
Hydrogen (H2) 4.0 75.0
Methane (CH4) 5.0 15.0
Propane (C3H8) 2.1 9.5

According to this table, acetylene is the most explosive and flammable gas. It is followed by hydrogen. Hydrogen and methane are lighter than air and accumulate in the upper part of the premises. Acetylene is heavier than air and accumulates below. Absolutely pure combustible gases are rarely used in technology. Detect leaks.

Combustible dust

Dust combustible material in a dense mass. Airgel (dust) may be capable of spontaneous combustion, aerosol (dust in the air) is explosive. Dust is more explosive than a particle size. Concentration of dust is usually reduced to 3-4 meters. Dust can accumulate in air ducts, low ground, basements, and in attics. A local outburst of dust can cause a large amount of precipitated dust. It is moistened by a mineral gas, it is a chemical additive.

Fire prevention

It should be noted that care has been taken to ensure that it does not occur simultaneously (see the “Burning” section). In enterprises, it is possible to use flammable liquids, vapors, dust or dust. It is especially great during testing. An apparatus or conduit It may result from the malfunctioning cranes or automatic adjustment systems. The apparatus can be damaged by a vehicle or a heavy falling object.

The source of ignition can be:

  • Malfunctions of electric heaters;
  • Sparking electrical outlets, switches;
  • Overheating of bearings in engines; static discharges;
  • Sparks when using a steel tool.

Possible ways of spreading the fire: ventilation ducts; lift shafts; cable tunnels; combustible flooring, combustible wall covering.

It should be maintained in order for fire extinguishing equipment, emergency evacuation, warning, communication. Fire exits and escapes must be free, in order, accessible, lighted, signposted.

Fire prevention

In the case of household furniture, it is not necessary to use metal furniture. If it’s possible, it’s possible to do it without carpets, “tracks”, linoleum, curtains and curtains. It is better to use aluminum blinds. It has been given that it can be used to make it out. It’s possible to make it possible.

As for paper wallpaper, it is tightly glued in one layer, then their fire danger is negligible. If you have a lot of books, it’s not. It is better to have a TV, iron, kettle, etc. Get the boiler from the table immediately after use. If you’re on fire, you can’t start it. It is necessary to ensure that you can connect it.

You can not use the following: If you’re on your own, you’re on your own; use homemade fuses; heat the pains and varnishes on the gas stove; gasoline and other flammable liquids in large quantities; indoors, wash things in gasoline or in another solvent; clutter up a fire escape on a balcony, etc.

Your own TV or refrigerator can catch on fire. Keep these devices away from what is well lit. Do not put books or newspapers on them or near them. The refrigerator is dangerous. Place it to prevent the spread of fire. When leaving it for a long time, turn off the refrigerator altogether. Around the TV in a niche. Ignite the TV is caused by dust that accumulates inside it. It is necessary to clean the room more often. It is necessary to disconnect from the electrical outlet.

There are cases of significant damage to building materials. For example, it was taken for the production of carbon dioxide. was filled with ethylene-air, and the mixture exploded. Therefore, you should be interested in them.

Strongly object to use them, even if you’re assorted State of your neighbors. We must stay away from all too unhappy, too adventurous, too unbalanced, lowered, or put away from themselves. It is possible that these people may suffer from a loss of life (through negligence or intentionally).

Smokers are especially dangerous. For example, it would be possible to make it out. will suffocate from the smoke. If gas stoves are used, it is necessary to ensure that the building is covered. When designing large buildings, they provide a smoke protection system. It is impossible to remove or contain defective devices.

Ensure that you’re not clutter up; emergency exits were not blocked; it was in stock condition; no flammable materials accumulated; There is no danger of damage to gas; children were not entertained with fire; etc.

If possible, it is possible to reduce the number of combustible materials in the room.

Preparing to extinguish a fire in a dwelling

Store 20 liters of water in a canister or in plastic bottles. The water supply system fails. To prevent bacteria from multiplying in water, add potassium permanganate to it. Get a car fire extinguisher. Keep your filtering mask ready. It is not necessary to take care of the carbon monoxide. . It can be quickly and firmly fixed to the water tap.

Preparation for evacuation

For some people, including emergency. If possible, do not leave the clothes and clothes in the wardrobe, but keep them with you. In a room filled with a large number of people (for example, in a movie theater), take a place closer to the exit. Leather shoes made of genuine leather, completely covering the foot. (Not necessarily on yourself) more. Wear your gloves if not in your hands, then in your pockets. Do not wear shorts and shirts with short sleeves.

The materials used are the best to resist fire. If you are working on a building, it’s not necessary to do it. body parts. Water may be needed, among other things, to put out a small fire. If you have to go through a smoke-filled corridor, it is usually collected from above.

If you’re at the bottom of the workplace It would be a good idea to wear gloves. Instead of rope, you can use a belt tape. It is more convenient to roll up into a roll, so that it can be thrown out of the window, securing one end.

This is a case in point. The undergone belt running under the armpits. In the mode of experimentally selected.

It is recommended that you use it. It is also recommended that you should be able to take it away.

Fire current

In buildings with a corridor of up to 5 meters per minute. It can be used for heating, fire retardant After the fire begins floors above the fire. The upper floors, as a rule, are the most smoke-filled.

Smoke emissions may increase. Decrease in the heat of the fires. It is not restored. It can not be the weight of water accumulated. Fire watering ladies lack the length.


In the case of fire, the following factors are dangerous: open fire and sparks; thermal radiation; high air temperature, especially if the air is humid; toxic combustion products in the air; low oxygen concentration in the air; collapsing parts of structures; flying fragments of exploded equipment.

It has not been found, but it is not a problem. There are enough breaths of poisonous smoke to lose consciousness. Especially a lot of toxic substances are formed when burning plastics. Carbon dioxide (CO2) at a 3 percent concentration of life threatening if inhaled for 30 minutes.

It is a person who loses consciousness, therefore, it is not necessary. Before possible, if possible, wet with water. Is it not liquid It is necessary to take care of your needs. You couldn’t have any object or any other object.

A thermal layer of clothing. Forwarding is a matter of course. When evacuating, you can not use elevators (except for special fire elevators). It is a fire for all those who are ordinary (non-fire). This is to prevent passengers from getting stuck in the cab.

In multisectional residential buildings there are passages from section to section through balconies. From the fifth floor and above the balconies are connected by fire escapes. It can be drastically changed when it comes to buildings. It is a fact that the products that have become the most active.

It’s not a problem. In the case of fire and air ducts, there is no loss of time.

Fire extinguishing

80% of fires occur at a time: when people are nearby. Fire service cause in 20..25% of cases of fire. In other cases, extinguish the fires themselves. Approximately half of the fires cope even before the arrival of firefighters. The following fire extinguishing techniques are used:

  • Decrease in air;
  • Reducing the oxygen content in the air;
  • Cooling of the burning zone;
  • Enter combustion inhibitors (chemical retarders);
  • Separating the burning process;
  • Creating a barrier to the spread of combustion.

The following substances are used for extinguishing:

  • Water;
  • Water based foams;
  • Gases: carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen;
  • Powders based on inorganic alkali metal salts: carbonates and bicarbonates of sodium, potassium, etc.

Electrical installations that are energized are quenched with powders, inert gases. Water conducts an electric current. Alkali metals (sodium, calcium, etc.) are stewed with powders. It is possible to use water. Combustible liquids (gasoline, alcohols, lacquers, etc.) are extinguished with foams, powders, non-combustible gases.

It can be collected above it. De-energize the electrical network. Burned small objects. In some situations, it can be used to extinguish sand or soil. Sand it is stored in advance.

Do not rush to open your door. It makes it easier to get rid of it. It’s closing more doors and windows.

It can be a fire, it can be a the passage of the passage. Therefore, it’s not necessary to make up for a possible explosion.

Protection against technical disasters

It is not necessary to settle for dangerous objects (fire-hazardous, explosive, radio-hazardous, chemically hazardous, etc.). If it is necessary to do the following:

  1. To study the nature of the possible danger.
  2. Understand the signs of the emergency.
  3. Explore the neighborhood for self-evacuation possibilities.
  4. Inquire about implemented and foreseen protective measures. As far as possible, ensure that these are not possible.
  5. Prepare two individual emergency sets for your workplace.
  6. It is a matter of fact.
  7. Take care of others to prepare for a possible accident.

Accidents and evacuation. Therefore, our own detector devices. It is not a problem.

It will be the case that it will be the case. Therefore, you can’t make a note of the direction of the wind.

This is a rash of sweeteners. Therefore, it is an effective room shelter. Insulation consists of sealing the vents. Sticky tape. If you want to breathe air, it will take you several times.

author of the text – Alexander Buryak, edition – LastDay.Club
from the book “The Art of Survival”

Advice and preparation for emergencies

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