To rescue ship crews in distress in the ocean, various individual rescue equipment is used: life bibs, life jackets, cork mattresses and lifebuoys. They provide positive buoyancy of victims in any clothing, put on easily and quickly, and in the event that a person has lost consciousness, support his head above the surface of the water.
Ship rescue equipment, life bibs, life jackets, cork mattresses, lifebuoys, rafts and boats.
Usually rescue equipment is equipped with a whistle and a warning light, which help the victim to attract the attention of rescuers. However, not allowing a person to drown, the listed individual life-saving appliances are not able to protect him from the cooling effect of the aquatic environment, and hypothermia often becomes the cause of death of the victim. The exception is individual life suits, which ensure a safe stay even in cold water for a certain time.
rafts are the most reliable collective rescue tool at sea.
The main advantages of inflatable liferafts include the following:
Light weight and small overall dimensions when stowed.
Convenience of people on the raft due to the presence of an awning and an inflatable bottom for seating.
High reliability and durability of rafts, as a result of which they are not damaged when descending from a ship in stormy weather.
A comfortable microclimate is created under the awning space of the rafts, which is provided by the respiration and heat generation of the human body. There is also the possibility of quickly bringing the liferaft into operational condition from any side of the vessel, even with critical roll.
The naval fleet of many countries adopted the inflatable liferafts of the English company Elliot. Their options are designed for 4, 10, 12, 20 people. Most rafts have the same type of device. The main chambers and floors are made of a three-layer rubberized fabric. Inflatable arches resting on the main camera support the awning. The floor is also inflated if necessary to provide better insulation against cold water..
The US Navy uses self-inflating rubber liferafts for 2, 4, 6, 20 or more people. The diameter, for example, of a six-seater raft is 2.2 meters, weight is 57 kg. Twenty-seat – 3.7 meters, weight – 114 kg. American rubber rafts are convenient for storage. They can be kept indoors and on the upper deck, and they can be put into working condition quickly – in 1 minute.
Features of equipment and use of inflatable liferafts.
On ships, inflatable liferafts are stored in canvas covers, which, in turn, can be enclosed in boxes, steel boxes or fiberglass containers. Inside the raft is placed a cover containing supplies of water, glucose, rockets, an electric lamp and packages with tablets for motion sickness. There are also two floating anchors, furs for inflating the raft and blowing it, a tool kit, a floating knife, a throwing end, etc. An instruction for those in distress is printed on the inside of the awning.
Placement of rescue equipment stocks on the PSN inflatable liferaft.
After dropping the liferaft into the water, inside the cover with the help of a special nylon cord fixed at one end on the vessel, a gas cylinder opens. Inflating, the life raft breaks the lacing of the cover and is ready for operation in 10-12 seconds. The entrance to the tent area is closed by a zipper. A metal screen is used to detect the raft using radar. Some rafts even have compact desalination plants.
PSN-10MK liferaft inflating phases.
It should be noted that inflatable liferafts of various manufacturers do not have significant differences in the design and equipment, since they must meet the requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.
Lifeboats and inflatable motor boats, design features.
Most of the fleets in the world are armed with life rafts and lifeboats and boats. The most modern of them are completely airtight and significantly differ in appearance and arrangement from traditional ship yalov. They have two buildings. Outside provides a buoyancy margin. Double board and double bottom create good thermal insulation.
The inner case has an access hatch on top, which, after landing, is tightly closed with a special device. With such a closure, a boat cover is not needed. It takes about 15 seconds to open or seal the boat. Caps made of transparent plastic on the bow in the stern provide illumination of the boat during the day and the possibility of an all-round view. Observation can also be conducted through two hatches located in the bow and stern..
Good tightness ensures the launch of the boat on the water with significant excitement. If the boat remains on the deck of the bending vessel, then it floats on its own. Such boats are capable of being under water at a depth of 10 meters for 20 minutes.
Since the early 1960s, fleets of many countries have increasingly used inflatable motor boats as life-saving appliances. They are much easier to launch. They have high speed, so they’ll be faster in the accident area.
They have very little draft, low and soft freeboard, allowing people to be easily pulled out of the water, a large buoyancy reserve, ensuring complete safety even when the rescue boat is flooded or overloaded with salvaged boats..
Based on the book Encyclopedia of Survival at Sea.