Shock, types of shock, its symptoms and first aid in an emergency or emergency.

It must be remembered that in the first minutes of an injury a person develops a so-called shock condition. Shock (from the English blow) is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate and competent treatment. Untimely or poor-quality care leads, in most cases, to the death of the patient. 

Shock, types of shock, its symptoms and first aid in an emergency or emergency.

Shock is the body’s response to one goal to survive. It manifests itself:

, a state of inhibition occurs, the victim reacts poorly to external stimuli. This phase looks like a stopper. If the pain stimulus continues to act, a protective reaction of the body occurs, leading to prohibitive inhibition of the central nervous system, which, in turn, leads to the development of coma and death of the victim.

To prevent the development of complications, it is necessary to timely and correctly conduct pain relief strictly for medical reasons. In severe wounds, the administration of analgin, even intravenously, will not give the necessary analgesia. In these cases, you need to immediately inject the victim with promedol (located in a syringe tube of personal army medicine kits), tramal or ketorol, which do not belong to the group of narcotic analgesics, but have a strong analgesic effect.

Due to the fact that intravenous injections require sufficient professional skills, in extreme situations, subcutaneous, or intramuscular, administration of drugs is preferable. If it is not possible to administer the drug by these methods, you can give anesthetic under the tongue, because in this area there is a rapid absorption of most drugs. Also, regardless of the patient’s condition, it is necessary to inject a large amount of liquid, in the field it can be warm sweet tea, compote, mineral water.

First emergency first aid for shock.

To give the victim a horizontal position on the back.
When vomiting begins, turn your head to the side.
Check for breathing and heart function.
In the absence of breathing and palpitations, it is necessary to urgently begin resuscitation (perform artificial respiration and heart massage).
Quickly stop any bleeding.
If your legs are not damaged, put them higher (on a backpack, log, etc.): this way more blood will flow into the brain and heart.
In the presence of fractures, immobilize the fractured joints (limbs).
In case of damage to internal organs, do not give drink.
You can only transport it in exceptional cases for transfer to a safe place, descent from the mountain (cliff), etc..
Strongly forbidden alcohol!

If within half an hour, a maximum of 40 minutes, the victim, who is in a state of shock, does not receive medical attention, then violations of the blood microcirculation in the kidneys, skin, intestines and other organs will lead to a fatal outcome. Therefore, the time factor in the development and outcome of the shock is of great importance. External manifestations of blood microcirculation disorders in the last stage of shock are characterized by the following symptoms.

After 30-40 minutes, the motor excitement of the first phase of shock is replaced by apathy and indifference, and then a complete loss of consciousness.
The level of blood pressure will drop to 30-60 mm RT. Art. The skin acquires an earthy hue with characteristic raspberry and greyish-green stains..

Their bizarre pattern resembles marble, and therefore the term marbling of the skin has even appeared in medical practice. This pattern is most pronounced on the skin of the abdomen and the front of the thighs. The last stage, as a rule, is considered irreversible and ends in death..

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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