In winter, one person can build a snow conical shelter, if necessary. Construction must begin long before dark, inclement weather, increased frost or overwork.
Snow conical shelter, dimensions, construction method and procedure, laying of snow blocks, insulation of snow conical shelter.
The most suitable building material is a medium density snow crust. If you stand on it, it is slightly squeezed. It is easy to cut, it is durable and not heavy. You need to look for such material in open spaces blown by the wind. On the tops of ridges, on passes, on bare hills, near uneven terrain, near large stones, kinks of the slope and the like. Dry loose snow, by itself, is unsuitable for use. But, due to its low thermal conductivity, the lower layers of snow have a higher temperature, while mixing the lower and upper layers, the snow nevertheless freezes into a dense mass.
Therefore, by mixing it, it will be possible to press and form snow bricks. Or cut them with a shovel. Also, uniform wetting of dry loose snow (by spraying water) can ensure the building uniformity of the material. This is of great importance both for the successful erection of a conical shelter, and for its stability during operation. For warming moistening a square meter of snow with a thickness of 20 cm, about 10 liters of water, or 3-5 buckets per cubic meter of masonry, are necessary, depending on the temperature and density of snow. In the thaw, from 0 to plus 1 degree, the snow has sufficient ductility and easily takes any form. This allows you to make any kind of snow blocks. And from these blocks to fold the corresponding conical shelter.
The procedure for the construction of a conical shelter of snow.
First you need to choose a place for the quarry, where bricks and blocks will be cut. A quarry is a pit with a starting area of: meter per meter and 50-60 cm deep (for convenience), which will then expand as snow blocks are removed from it. The depth of the surrounding snow cover is not less than 0.6-0.7 meters. Better 1 meter or more. The quarry should be laid on the leeward side of the construction site. If the shelter is built on a slope, the quarry is higher than the construction site.
Then you need to choose a place for a cone shelter. Align it. Plan the shape and size of the cone shelter. Shelter diameter: for one person at least 2.4 meters, for two – 2.7 meters, for three – 3 meters, for four – 3.5 meters. With a stick, a piece of rope with a stick attached to it or a knife, draw a circle of the required diameter and outline the entrance. In the intended circle, it is necessary to trample a small depression along the width of the bricks so that they get an emphasis and a more solid foundation.
From the edges of the quarry pit, cut bricks-blocks. If the snow has a uniform density, it is necessary to cut narrow, upright bricks. If the top layer of snow is strong, the blocks must be cut horizontally. The first 15-20 blocks will serve as the foundation. Therefore, they need to be cut into a larger size, maximum – 100 x 50 x 30 cm. The brick cut from four sides is knocked out of the snow monolith by a light foot strike along the lower edge. As the quarry lengthens, blocks must be cut from three sides.
Laying snow blocks on a cone shelter.
Lay out and fasten the blocks of the first row in the intended circle. A small gap should be left between these blocks (approximately 1 cm), as they can be squeezed out of the circle due to the tightness of the upper rows. Trim them so that the beginning of the spiral forms (the first block-triangle). Cut the edges of the blocks from the inside at an angle of 25-30 degrees. Continue laying the blocks in a spiral and at an angle. Due to the inclination and extension into the snow bricks, the rings of the rows gradually narrow, forming a regular hemisphere. The slope of the upper rows of blocks can reach 40-45 degrees. In this case, the blocks should not touch the lower corners. In the lower parts of the joints, small triangular holes should be left. For sustainability. Then these holes must be covered with snow.
The vertical joints of the blocks in the rows should not coincide. That is, the next block must be laid so that the joint of the bottom row of blocks falls to it from the bottom in the middle. Bricks-blocks must be laid “infusion”, the more durable side inward. The block installed on the wall of the conical shelter cannot be moved back and forth; it will lose its shape and strength. Having put the block, you just need to cut it strongly protruding parts and carefully adjust it. The upper hole in the dome of the conical shelter must be closed with one polygonal or round slab, which will wedge and support the last row of blocks and ensure the stability of the structure. All large gaps between the blocks must be laid with debris of the crust, small ones should be wiped with loose snow. If the snow layer under the shelter is thick, then on the leeward side, you need to dig an entrance, a laser tunnel.
Features of dwelling inside a conical shelter made of snow, bonfire.
If the conical shelter is standing on fine snow, then it is necessary to cut the entrance hole in the wall at ground level and close it with a door block. If the entrance is punched at the floor level, then the bed should be installed at a distance of 30-40 cm above its level. If there will be a fire in the shelter, then in the top of the arch you need to make a hole with a diameter of 15-20 cm for smoke to escape. A bonfire should be lightened with a small one made of dry low-smoking firewood. If the fire is smoking, then in the dome it is necessary to cut an additional window, which, after ventilation, must be closed from the outside with a block. For better traction, a bonfire can be placed above the inlet on a grid of thick raw poles, the entrance will act as a furnace blower).
To heat, especially at the beginning, it is necessary to intermittently, not allowing a strong increase in temperature, as this will lead to intense melting of snow and falling drops of water from the arch. As soon as the melting of snow begins, it is necessary to stop heating. Wait for the entire cone shelter to freeze inside and form on its walls, and especially on the arch of the ice crust. This will increase the strength and thermal stability of the walls and then allow a sufficient increase in temperature. Inside the shelter, it is desirable to make an insulating screen of boards, slabs, plywood, wattle, burlap, tarpaulin, matting, etc. An air gap of about 10 cm should remain between this screen and the snow wall, and 20 cm in the arch.
To cool the air gap, especially at the roof, it is necessary to provide an influx of external cold air. Why do you need to make through the ventilation holes in the shelter wall with a size of 20×20 cm. With strong cooling of the shelter, they can be covered with bunches of straw, hay or rags. With a lack of material for the insulating screen throughout the inside of the shelter, you can make the screen only around the fire (furnace). To collect water from the thawing surface of the arch along the perimeter of the snow conical shelter, it is necessary to open the drainage groove with a depth of 5-8 cm.
The entrance opening in the shelter should be minimal. In frosty weather, to increase strength, a conical shelter of snow should be evenly poured outside with water in two to three doses. At the same time, breaks between watering should be at least 12 hours. During a period of intense thaw, the snow cone shelter must be protected from the outside with an insulation layer: sawdust, moss, peat, spruce spruce branches and the like. The thickness of the insulation layer is not less than 10 cm in a compacted state. Snow must be poured over this insulation with a layer of at least 10 cm.
Based on the book “Survival beyond the threshold of civilization”.