Soaking, this is the first preparatory operation to which the skin removed from the beast during the dressing is subjected. The purpose of soaking is to restore the structure of the skin tissue characteristic of a pair of freshly skinned skin, to remove unnecessary preservatives and water-soluble substances of the skin itself from the skin’s thickness. Apply window and smear methods for soaking hides.
Soaking hides, dipping and spreading methods, preparing a solution for soaking hides.
The soaking of skins is done in a sufficiently capacious dish, not subject to oxidation. You can use a large enameled or plastic tank, bathtub, wooden barrel for this purpose. Before preparing the soaking solution, the dishes must be cleaned..
way, the solution is prepared at the rate of 30-40 g of table salt per 1 liter of water at room temperature. Be sure to add an antiseptic that inhibits the development of microorganisms and prevents possible rotting of the skin.
It can be any household antiseptic agents that are used for processing furniture, wooden houses, crystalline carbolic acid (phenol), zinc chloride. Carbolic acid is widely used in veterinary medicine for the sanitation of farms and livestock. It can be purchased at chemical stores. To the soaking solution, carbolic acid is added in an amount of 2 g per 1 liter of solution.
Zinc chloride is used as a flux for soldering metals. It is sold in hardware stores as a 40% aqueous solution. To soak the skins, add a teaspoon of this solution per 1 liter of water, and crystalline zinc chloride – 2-3 g per 1 liter of water. Zinc chloride also helps to fix hair in the skin and is especially useful when working with already damaged skins..
The skins are lowered into the prepared solution, crushing them with some kind of weight so that they do not come up. The volume of the container in which the soaking is carried out should be large enough so that the skins soaked in water can float freely in it. Soaking can last from a few hours to 3-4 days, which depends on the thickness of the skin tissue, the quality of the primary processing and clearing of the skin, the duration of storage of canned skins.
Properly processed skin that has been stored for a short time in a cool, dry place and not exposed to large changes in temperature and humidity will be soaked very quickly, after a few hours it can be removed from the solution. The longer the hide is stored, the harder and longer the soak will be.
Skins extremely poorly soaked, insufficiently thoroughly cleansed of fat, which impregnates the skin and prevents the penetration of water into it. Skins with skin that has become keratinized as a result of improper accelerated drying at high temperature also do not absorb water. When soaking this kind of skins, the method of pressing or whipping is used, i.e., swelling of the skin tissue under the influence of an acid enhancer.
Preparation of an acid enhancer solution for soaking hides.
To do this, make a solution at the rate of 2-3 g of concentrated acetic acid per 1 liter of water. Concentrated acetic acid is available at chemical stores. High concentration food grade acetic acid (acetic essence) is sold in grocery stores. Acetic essence is usually produced at 70% concentration..
For the solution, take a tablespoon (20 ml) of such an acid in 5 liters of water. Skins are immersed in this solution. The swelling of the skin occurs very quickly, after a few minutes the skin becomes 2-3 times thicker. However, just quick thickening is not enough. It takes several hours to loosen the entire thickness of hardened skin.
After uniform swelling and softening of the skin over its entire area, the pressure must be removed. This is achieved by adding sodium chloride to the same solution (30-40 g per 1 liter of solution). After complete dissolution of the salt, the skin is left in the solution until the pressure disappears, i.e. until the skin thickness becomes like that of a freshly skinned skin.
In the process of soaking the skins need to be mixed to ensure uniform smoothing of all skin areas. When mixing and shifting the soaking hides in the solution, it is necessary to check their condition all the time, paying special attention to the most difficult to soak skin areas. For example, the penetration of water into places where subcutaneous films were left during the initial treatment is difficult.
Such areas of the skin can be carefully cleaned with a knife for mechanical loosening or try to separate the remnants of the films with your hands. If the soak is delayed, it is recommended to change the solution every 12 hours, even if there are antiseptics in it. Changing the solution will somewhat speed up the process of soaking and prevent the possibility of the development of putrefactive microorganisms and skin damage.
The readiness of the skin and the completion of the soak are judged by the following signs:
1. The skin on the entire area of the skin is soaked evenly, it is soft and stretches well in any area in all directions.
2. Hair holds firmly, does not fall out.
Upon reaching this result, the skins are immediately removed, carefully wrung out and hung to drain the remaining water. You can not squeeze the skins by twisting, like linen, since it is possible to tear out the hair. All of the above applies to skins, canned fresh-dry method, the most difficult to soak.
Skins, canned with salt, salted or wet salted method, are soaked much faster. For dry-salted skins, a solution for soaking is prepared in the same way as for fresh-dry skins. It is enough to rinse wet salted skins thoroughly in clean water if they have not dried out anywhere, which should not be the case when preservation and storage are carried out correctly.
Preservation of mustard powder provides quick soaking of skins in the same salt and antiseptic solution after preliminary washing from mustard in clean water for 5-10 minutes.
Namazny method of soaking hides.
The spreading method is used for soaking skins with thick lush fur that have undergone complete primary processing and have not been stored for long. If the hair was well cleaned during the initial treatment, then it is not necessary to wet it. For soaking, a solution is prepared by prayer, the same as for the dipping method, or with a slightly higher salt content (60-100 g per 1 liter of water).
Mozra is generously moistened with a solution, the skins are folded with the skins to the mass and wrapped in a damp cloth. After greasing with a solution, it is convenient to roll the skins removed with a stocking or tube into a dense roll. After half an hour or an hour, the skins are unfurled, moisturized again and especially abundantly – areas where the skin is poorly soaked. Duration of salted soaking from one hour to a day. The readiness of the skins is determined by the same characteristics as in the case of the skins soak method.
For plastered soaking of thick-skinned skins, sawdust of tree species soaked in a solution for soaking can be used. Sawdust is placed on the mezra with a dense layer of a thickness of 2-3 cm and the skins are folded with mezdra to the mezdra, and then covered with a thick cloth. After the completion of the soaking, draining and wringing of the residual solution, they proceed to the next stage of preparing the skins for dressing the coat.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Petrunin V.B., Nikashina E.B., Kupriyanov F.G., Nikerov Yu.N., Rymalov I.V..